Upgrade to remove ads
Anatomy Test 1 Bones
Terms in this set (199)
Long shaft of bone
The bones of our limbs and girdles
Spine and skull from longitudinal axis of body
The skeletal system gives support and protection, allows for movement and blood cells production, and storage.
-Gives body shape and form
-Supports body weight and body walls
-Protects body organs such as skull, vertebrate, and ribs.
-Support, protection, movement, blood cell production, storage.
Movement - Provides a place of attachment for tendons of muscles. As muscles shorten, pull on bones, which act as levers to produce movement of joints.
Formation of blood cells within the marrow cavities of bone.
__________ bones in body.
Compact and spongy
Two types of bone tissue?
trabeculae form a beam like network.
Filled with bone marrow.
Dense bone, very hard, looks smooth and even throughout.
___________ are found in extremities.
Longer in length than in width. Long shaft. Have heads at both ends.
Long bones have __________ bone on the outside and ____________ bone at the ends and inside.
Cube shaped, mostly spongy. Found in carpals, tarsals, sesmoid.
Patella bone, other short bones that are around areas of lots of friction.
Thin and flat. Two thin layers of compact bone with spongy bone on inside.
Found in skull, ribs, and sternum.
Lots of hematopoiesis in flat bones.
Skull ribs and sternum are what type of bones.
Carpals, tarsals, and sesamoid bones.
Bones that do not fit into any of the other categories. Found in pelvis (hip) and vertebrae.
Ends of bone
Bone covering that is pain sensitive
a matrix of connective tissue consisting of bundles of strong predominantly type III collagen fibres connecting periosteum to bone.
fibrous connective tissue covering the shaft.
ends of long bones. One will be proximal one will be distal. Contains spongy bone.
Articular (hyaline) Cartilage
Covers external surfaces of epiphysis. Smooth, slippery joint surface.
Joints should be slick/smooth.
The remnant of epiphyseal growth plate. Flat plate of cartilage. Mature bone.
growth plate. found in young growing bones. Causes lengthwise growth of bone. Ossifies in mature adults.
Hollow chamber in bone.
Red marrow produces blood cells.
Yellow marrow is adipose.
thin layer lining the medullary cavity
Mature bone cells
Houses mature bone cells. Black dots that surround central blood vessel and house osteocytes.
Concentric rings of lacunae found around the central Haversian canal (which the blood vessels and nerves? pass through).
Minute canals radiating in all directions from lacunae
Are microscopic canals between the lacunae of ossified bone. The radiating processes of the osteocytes (called filopodia) project into these canals. These cytoplasmic processes are joined together by gap junctions. Osteocytes do not entirely fill up the canaliculi. The remaining space is known as the periosteocytic space, which is filled with periosteocytic fluid. This fluid contains substances too large to be transported through the gap junctions that connect the osteocytes, including calcium and phosphate ions.
are bones imbedded within a tendon. These are found where a tendon passes over a joint (a location where two or more bones connect, such as your elbow or your knee). They protect the tendon and increase the efficiency of the joint. A great example of a sesamoid bone is the patella, or kneecap.
A shallow depression (the word suggests "ditch" or "trench"). Such depressions in the surface of bones often receive another articulating bone with which a joint is formed.
Ex. Hypophyseal fossa of the sphenoid bone
Round hole through which blood vessels, nerves or ligaments pass.
Foramen magnum of the occipital bone at the base of the skull
Also vertebral foramina in the vertebrate of the spine.
Example of a foramen?
A rounded projection that forms part of a joint (in combination with a fitting part of an adjacent bone) and is separated from the shaft of the same bone by a narrow portion (usually called the neck).
A smooth flat articular surface. Such flat surface may form a joint with another _________ or flat bone.
Ex. Ribs, vertebrae
Curved portion of a bone, like a ram's horn.
Mandible, ischium, Pubis
Cavity within a bone.
The _________________ are the semi-open areas enclosed by the sphenoid bone that act as drains from the nasal cavity.
Large rounded or oblong projection that may look like a raised bump. Such rounded/oblong projections called tuberosities are often sites for muscle attachment.
Tibia, ischium, humerus, radius.
Small rounded projection
Moderately raised and therefore prominent border or ridge. Such crests are often sites for a muscle attachment.
The long sharp part of tibia
Large blunt bump-like projection (larger than a tuberosity, which is in turn larger than a tubercle).
Greater trochanter at the top of femur.
A tube-like opening or channel extending within a bone.
External auditory meatus
__________________ of the temporal bone forms part of the skull behind the ear.
Small rounded projection on the surface of the condyle.
On the humorous there is a condyle and an epicondyle.
Spine or spinous process
A sharp, pointed, slender projection.
Such sharp raised projections called spines are often sites for muscle attachment.
A raised area or projection
Long, crack-line hole for blood vessels and nerves.
growth plate. found in young growing bones. Causes lengthwise growth of bone. Ossifies in mature adults.
Round prominence at the end of a bone, most often part of a joint.
An articulation with another bone.
mandibular fossa, temporal, mandibular condyle
The _______________ is the depression in the ____________ bone that articulates with the __________________.
sella turcica (Turkish Chair)
The ____________ is a saddle-shaped depression in the body of the sphenoid bone of the human skull
superior orbital fissure
______________ is a foramen in the skull, although strictly it is more of a cleft, lying between the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid bone.
It is formed by the palatine process of the maxilla and horizontal plate of palatine bone, and spans the arch formed by the upper teeth.
What bones make up the hard palate?
Maxilla (one on each side), It is the keystone of the face and all other facial bones articulate with them. (except the mandible)
Which facial bone contacts all other facial bones ?
temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
Name the only mobile joint of the skull?
Coronal suture joining the frontal to parietal bones
Squamous sutures joining the parietal to temporal bones on each side.
Lambdoid suture joining the parietal to occipital bones
Sagittal suture joining the parietal bones on top of head.
Name the 4 sutures in the skull (5 total but there are two of one).
aids in tongue movement and swallowing.
Name the only bone in axial skeleton that does not contact any other bone.
The spinal cord, an extension of the medulla, passes through the ____________ as it exits the cranial vault.
Function in articulation with the superior facets of the atlas vertebra.
Articulate with the superior facets of the atlas.
The ____________ is the passageway in the temporal bone through which the internal carotid artery enters the middle cranial fossa from the neck.
Articulates with the occipital condyles at a joint that permits nodding.
Distinguishing features are:
Lack of a body.
The ________ forms the "axis" around which C1 can pivot to permit rotation of the head from side to side.
C2 (axis), dens (the dens forms the axis around which C1 can pivot to permit rotation of head from side to side)
During development, the body of C1 fuses to ___ to produce the _______.
Transverse costal facets
____________ are where the tuberculum of the ribs articulates with the transverse processes of the vertebra.
True ribs (ribs 1-7)
_______________ attach to the sternum by costal cartilages
False ribs (ribs 8-10)
The ____________ attach to the costal cartilage of rib 7, not directly to the sternum
Floating ribs (11-12)
The ___________ have no anterior attachment with the sternum
All 12 pairs of ribs articulate posteriorly with the thoracic vertebrae.
_______ is shorter and wider than the other ribs. It only has one facet on its head for articulation with its corresponding vertebrae (there isn't a thoracic vertebrae above it). The superior surface is marked by two grooves, which make way for the subclavian vessels.
Ribs 11 and 12
__________ have no neck, and only contain one facet, which is for articulation with the corresponding vertebrae.
All of the twelve ribs articulate posteriorly with the vertebrae of the spine. Each rib forms two joints:
Costotransverse joint - Between the tubercle of the rib, and the transverse costal facet of the corresponding vertebrae.
Costovertebral joint - Between the head of the rib, superior costal facet of the corresponding vertebrae, and the inferior costal facet of the vertebrae above.
Between the tubercle of the rib, and the transverse costal facet of the corresponding vertebrae.
Between the head of the rib, superior costal facet of the corresponding vertebrae, and the inferior costal facet of the vertebrae above.
Heart shaped bodies and round vertebral foramina.
Vertebral bodies are oval and vertebral foramen is triangular.
The spinous process is stumpy and projects dorsally
Flat bone that forms the anterior midline of the thoracic wall
Widest and most superior portion of sternum. The notch along the superior border is the jugular notch. Has facets for attachment with the costal cartilage of rib 1.
longest and largest portion of sternum and articulates with ribs 2 to 7
smallest part of sternum. Attached to inferior border of body.
The ______________ are bars of hyaline cartilage that serve to prolong the ribs forward and contribute to the elasticity of the walls of the thorax. Costal cartilage is only found at the anterior ends of the ribs, providing medial extension
hyaline cartilage, elasticity
The costal cartilages are bars of _____________ that serve to prolong the ribs forward and contribute to the ___________ of the walls of the thorax. Costal cartilage is only found at the anterior ends of the ribs, providing medial extension
The __________ has facets for attachment with the costal cartilage of rib 1.
The __________ represent the fusion of 5 vertebrae.
Transverse lines mark where the bodies of the vertebrae fused. The bone is curved when viewed from the side with a convex dorsal surface
The _________ consists of 3-5 fused vertebrae. The _________ is that attachment site for a number of ligaments and a muscle that constricts the anal opening.
The pectoral girdle, or shoulder girdle, consists of the __________ and ___________.
larger posterior process on scapula. The ___________ is continuous with the scapular spine a ridge that extends to the medial border.
smaller anterior projection on scapula
acromion, acromial end
The ______________ of the scapula attaches to the ________________ of the clavicle
glenoid cavity or glenoid fossa
The _________________ of the scapula is a part of the shoulder. It is a shallow pyriform, articular surface, which is located on the lateral angle of the scapula. It is directed laterally and forward and articulates with the head of the humerus;
medial (vertebral) border, lateral (axillary) border, superior border
The scapula has three borders on its triangle shape. From the anterior view the acromion is coming out from behind to attach the the clavicle, and the coracoid process it anterior to the accordion.
The _______________ forms the medial part of the triangle.
The _____________ forms the lateral part of the triangle.
The _____________ forms the superior part of the triangle.
The _____________ of the scapula is the point bottom of the scapula.
The ________________ of the scapula is at the point at the top of the scapula.
acromioclavicular joint (or AC joint)
The ____________________ is a joint at the top of the shoulder. It is the junction between the acromion and the clavicle.
A common injury to the AC joint is dislocation, often called AC separation or shoulder separation. This is not the same as a "shoulder dislocation," which refers to dislocation of the glenohumeral joint.
shoulder joint (or glenohumeral joint)
The ________________, is a multiaxial synovial ball and socket joint and involves articulation between the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the head of the humerus. Due to the very loose joint capsule that gives a limited interface of the humerus and scapula, it is the most mobile joint of the human body.
glenoid cavity of the scapula, head of the humerus
The glenohumeral joint is a multiaxial synovial ball and socket joint and involves articulation between the _________________ and the ________________. Due to the very loose joint capsule that gives a limited interface of the humerus and scapula, it is the most mobile joint of the human body.
The _____________________ occurs between the proximal end of the clavicle and the clavicular notch of the manubrium of the sternum together with a small part of the first costal cartilage. The sternoclavicular joint is a saddle-type joint that allows movement of the clavicle, predominantly in anteroposterior and vertical planes, although some rotation also occurs. The ability to thrust the arm and shoulder forward requires sound function of this joint.
The ligamentous reinforcements of the ________________ are very strong, often resulting a fracture of the clavicle before a dislocation of the SC Joint. Posterior dislocation puts the mediastinal structures at risk.
joint connecting axial and appendicular portions of skeleton for the upper extremity
Head of humerus
smooth and round, superior and medial portion of the epiphysis that articulates with the glenoid cavity.
large projection lateral to the head of humerus
smaller projection on the anterior and medial surface of the epiphysis of the humerus.
Medial and lateral epicondyles
the flared distal ends of the humerus on either side of the articular surface. Muscles attach here.
The inferior articular surface of the humerus that articulates with the ulna and the radius.
spool-shaped medial portion of condyle of humerus that articulates with the ulna
In the anatomical position the ulna is actually on the inside, and it articulates with the trochlea on the condyle of the humerus.
In the anatomical position the radius is actually on the outside, and it articulates with the capitulum on the condyle of the humerus.
rounded lateral portion of condyle of humerus that articulates with the head of the radius
The _______ is the medial bone of the forearm. The proximal end of the _______ articulates with the ___________ of the humerus
ulnar styloid process
short process posterior to the ulnar head. point
superior and posterior portion of the epiphysis that forms the point of the elbow, and this is apart of the ___________.
radius styloid process
process on lateral side of distal radius that stabilizes the wrist joint. point
disc-shaped head articulates with the capitulum of the humerus
There are eight carpal (wrist) bones, four proximal and four distal. The bones are connected by moveable joints that permit them to slide and twist.
adjacent to styloid process of radius.
Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform
In the anatomical position.
lateral to medial proximal carpal bone positions.
trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
In the anatomical position.
lateral to medial distal carpal bone positions.
The metacarpal bones are bones that support the palm and articulate with the distal carpal bones. They are numbered with the Roman numerals (I - V) from lateral to medial. Each has a wide proximal base, a middle body, and a distal head
There are 14 finger bones with three in each finger (proximal, middle and distal) with the exception of the thumb, also called the pollex, which has only two (proximal and distal)
Thumb is also called the _________.
If the palm of the hand is facing up it is supination and the radius will be lateral and the ulna will be medial.
If the palm of the hand is facing down this is pronation and the radius starts lateral at the elbow then crosses over and is medial at the wrist.
The ___________ results from the fusion of the ilium, ischium and pubis.
Ilium, ischium, pubis
The coxal bone results from the fusion of the _________, ____________, and ___________.
Formed where all three pelvic bones fuse together and is a curved surface that articulates with the head of the femur.
Sacro-illiac joint (SI joint)
joint connecting axial and appendicular portions of skeleton for the lower extremity.
sacroiliac joint (or SI joint), synovial plane joint
The ________________ is the joint in the bony pelvis between the sacrum and the ilium of the pelvis, which are joined by strong ligaments. In humans, the sacrum supports the spine and is supported in turn by an ilium on each side. The joint is a strong, weight bearing ________________ with irregular elevations and depressions that produce interlocking of the two bones.
sacrum, ilium, synovial plane joint
The sacroiliac joint or SI joint (SIJ) is the joint in the bony pelvis between the __________ and the _________ of the pelvis, which are joined by strong ligaments. In humans, the sacrum supports the spine and is supported in turn by an ilium on each side. The joint is a strong, weight bearing ____________ with irregular elevations and depressions that produce interlocking of the two bones.
The head of the femur articulates with the ________________.
Greater Trochanter of femur
process that projects laterally from the junction of the neck with the shaft
Lesser trochanter of femur
process on posterior, medial surface of femur
medial, lateral condyles, intercondylar fossa
The distal articular surface of the femur has smooth and round ___________ and _______________. The condyles fuse anteriorly to form the patellar surface but remain separate posteriorly where there is an ___________________.
patella (knee cap)
The ___________ is a large sesamoid bone that forms in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris tendons
The large medial bone of the leg
lateral and medial condyles
round expanded processes on proximal end of tibia with flat articular surfaces
roughened prominence on anterior surface for attachment of patella ligament.
head of fibula
articulates inferior and slightly posterior to the lateral tibial condyle
Lateral malleolus of fibula
distal epiphysis provides stability to the ankle joint by preventing medial sliding of tibia across the talus
helps stabilize the ankle joint medially by preventing sliding. Both a medial (on the tibia) and a lateral (on the fibula).
transmits weight from tibia to foot. Its articulation with the tibia is the smooth superior surface, the trochlea
largest tarsal bone forms the heel. Transmits most of the weight while standing
articulates with anterior surface of calcaneus
articulates with anterior surface of talus
cuneiform bones (medial, intermediate, lateral)
three wedge-shaped bones that articulate with anterior surface of navicular bone
Five bones numbered with Roman numerals I - V proceeding from medial to lateral. MEDIAL to LATERAL, in opposition to the metacarpal bones which is I - V lateral to medial in the anatomical position.
As in the hand, there are 14 phalanges in the five digits with three phalanges (proximal, middle and distal) in all except the great toe, hallux, which has only two (proximal and distal).
The ankle joint made up from tibia, fibula, and talus joining together. Actually the joining of the lateral and medial malleoli and the tibial plafond with the talus.
What is the mortise?
A synovial joint, also known as ______________
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the location at which bones connect. They are constructed to allow movement (except for skull, sacral, sternal, and pelvic bones) and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally.
The correct anatomical name for a joint is?
6 types of synovial joints.
Plane Joint - Sliding or gliding movement, found in wrist and ankles, and acromioclavicular joint between the acromion of the scapula and the clavicle.
Hinge Joint - Motion in one plane
Arth or Arthro means?
Every bone forms a joint with at least one other bone with one exception?
Ex. Sutures in the skull
Structure and function names.
Both immovable and slightly movable joints.
Vertebrae, ribs, sternum, pubic symphysis.
Freely movable joints, found in limbs, and have synovial membranes lining them.
United by fibrous tissue.
Interlocking irregular bone edges bound together tightly by connective tissue.
Allows no movement
Skull sutures, ilium and sacrum
The ends of the bones are connected by cartilage
Pads/Disks of fibrocartilage
Pubic symphysis, intervertebral joints
Synovial joints, Diarthroses
Synovial membrane and fluid in the joint
Articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity.
Contain synovial fluid.
All the joints in the limbs
4 characteristics of synovial joints
Articular Cartilage - Covers ends of bones
Fibrous articular capsule - Joint surfaces are enclosed by a sleeve or capsule of fibrous tissue and is lined with a smooth synovial membrane.
Joint capsule - Enclosed cavity which contains synovial fluid.
Articular cartilage - lines the ends of the bones.
The Joint capsule is the synovial fluid in the joint.
Reinforcing ligaments hold the whole thing together.
The Fibrous articular capsule is the synovial membrane that holds the whole thing together like a sleeve. You have to break the capsule open to look inside.
1 axis of motion, move in one plane, Knee and elbow. Interphalangeal joints in fingers and toes
2 Axis of motion, wrist, ankle
ball and socket
3 axis of motion, shoulder, hip.
Jaw joint between temporal bone and mandible
Interphalangeal joints, Distal IP and Proximal IP
a short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint
a flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone
___________ ligaments strengthen and reinforce synovial joints
____________ ligaments are within the joint capsule. _____________ ligaments are either localized thickenings of the joint capsule or separate ligaments outside of the capsule.
___________ are packets of connective tissue filled within synovial fluid and lined by synovial membranes. They reduce friction between bone, tendons, ligaments and soft tissue
articular (hyaline) cartilage
The touching surfaces of bones in synovial joints are lined by _____________ that reduce friction and act as shock absorbers.
Synovial fluid is a viscous fluid that is produced by the _________________ that lines the interior of the joint capsule.
medial, lateral menisci
The medial and lateral condylar articulations between the femur and tibia have between them pads of fibrocartilage called the _________ and _______________.
1. absorb the compressive forces generate at this weight-bearing joint;
2. more evenly distribute the force transferred from the femoral articulations to the tibial; and
3. provide lateral stability
Functions of the menisci:
tibial (medial) collateral ligament, fibular (lateral) collateral ligament
The _______________ reinforces the medial side of the knee joint and the ______________ reinforces the lateral side of the knee joint
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
The _____________________ and the_________________ limit the anterior and posterior movement of the femur.
a flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone
The adult vertebral column shows four spinal curves, cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral curves.
The thoracic curve is kyphotic (kyphosis).
The lumbar curve is lordotic (lordosis)
The cervical curve is lordotic
The ___________ and ____________ curves are termed primary curves, because they are present in the fetus.
The ___________ and ___________ curves are secondary curves because they are developed after birth.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
exercise 11 terms (the skeletal system)
Chapter 6 - The skeleton: Bones & Joints
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Anatomy Test 1 set 2
Human Anatomy Day 8
Human Anatomy Day 6