Appeal to Pity
A fallacy in which the argument relies on generosity, altruism, or mercy, rather than reason.
A fallacy in which the argument relies on an attack against the person taking a position.
Appeal to Force
A fallacy in which the argument relies on the threat of force; the threat may be veiled.
A fallacy in which the premises support a different conclusion than the one that is proposed.
Argument from Ignorance
A fallacy in which a proposition is held to be true just because it has not been proved false, or false just because it has not been proved true.
Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
A fallacy in which a conclusion is based on the judgement of a supposed authority who has no legitimate claim to expertise in the matter.
A fallacy in which one moves carelessly from individual cases to generalizations.
A fallacy in which a question is asked in a way that presupposes the truth of some proposition buried within the question.
Begging the question
A fallacy in which the conclusion is stated or assumed within one of the premises.
Fallacy of Equivocation
A fallacy in which two or more meanings of a work or phrase are used in different parts of an argument.
Fallacy of Amphiboly
A fallacy in which a loose or awkward combination of words can be interpreted more than one way; the argument contains a premise based on one interpretation while the conclusion relies on a different interpretation.
Fallacy of Composition
A fallacy in which an inference is mistakenly drawn from the attributes of the parts of a whole, to the attributes of the whole.