CCQ #4: Islam and the West: From Islam's Rise to the Crusades, 550-1100

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1. The outside powers contending for control of Arabia included ______.

A. the Greek Christian Byzantine Empire.
B. Zoroastrian Persia.
C. Christian Ethiopia.
D. all of the above.
E. only one and two above.
D. all of the above.
2. Historically, it was ____________ who first conquered __________.

A. (1) the Christian Byzantines, Zoroastrian Persians, and Christian Ethiopians; (2) the Arabs & Arabia.
B. (1) the Arabs & Arabia; (2) the Christian Byzantines, Zoroastrian Persians, and Christian Ethiopians.
. (1) the Christian Byzantines, Zoroastrian Persians, and Christian Ethiopians; (2) the Arabs & Arabia.
3. Match the following historians with their views of Islam's Rise:
1. Catholic historian Karen Armstrong
2. Western historian S.F. Starr
3. The early Middle East Christian Leader John of Phenek (690s)

__ From its very inception "[t]he new monotheist faith to which [Muhammad's] prophesies gave rise swept up tens of thousands of Bedouins in a whirlwind of conquests" ultimately "[d]riven by religious zeal and visions of earthly riches"
__ "'We should not think of their advent as something ordinary, but as due to divine working. Before calling them, God had prepared them beforehand to hold Christians in honor;... How otherwise, apart from God's help, could naked men, riding without armor or shield, have been able to win; God called them from the ends of the earth in order to destroy, through them, a sinful kingdom (Amos 9:8), and to humiliate, through them, the proud spirit of the Persians.'"
__ "It seemed yet another miracle and sign of God's favour. Before the coming of Islam, the Arabs had been a despised outgroup; but in a remarkably short space of time they had inflicted major defeats upon two world empires."
_2_ From its very inception "[t]he new monotheist faith to which [Muhammad's] prophesies gave rise swept up tens of thousands of Bedouins in a whirlwind of conquests" ultimately "[d]riven by religious zeal and visions of earthly riches"
_3_ "'We should not think of their advent as something ordinary, but as due to divine working. Before calling them, God had prepared them beforehand to hold Christians in honor;... How otherwise, apart from God's help, could naked men, riding without armor or shield, have been able to win; God called them from the ends of the earth in order to destroy, through them, a sinful kingdom (Amos 9:8), and to humiliate, through them, the proud spirit of the Persians.'"
_1_ "It seemed yet another miracle and sign of God's favour. Before the coming of Islam, the Arabs had been a despised outgroup; but in a remarkably short space of time they had inflicted major defeats upon two world empires."
4. Motives in the Arab Muslim conquests included __________. (MS)

A. religious zeal
B. religious-political unity
C. the desire for land
D. the desire for personal power
E. the desire for fame & glory
F. the desire for spoils of war & riches of trade
A. religious zeal
B. religious-political unity
C. the desire for land
D. the desire for personal power
E. the desire for fame & glory
F. the desire for spoils of war & riches of trade
5. Some important social teachings of Muhammed and Islam include which of the following? (MS)

A. Treat with kindness your parents and kindred, and
orphans and those in need.
B. Speak fair to the people.
C Practice regular charity.
D. The best thing to do [for orphans] is what is for their good.
E. The infanticide of female babies was prohibited.
A. Treat with kindness your parents and kindred, and
orphans and those in need.
B. Speak fair to the people.
C Practice regular charity.
D. The best thing to do [for orphans] is what is for their good.
E. The infanticide of female babies was prohibited.
6. In relation to the religion of Islam, Muhammed and the Qur'an claim that: "The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on ________. (MS)

A. Adam.
B. Noah.
C. Abraham.
D. Moses.
E. Jesus.
B. Noah.
C. Abraham.
D. Moses.
E. Jesus.
7. According to Muhammed's earliest biographer Ibn Ishaq, _______. (MS)

A. Muhammed encountered a Christian monk in 582 CE at age 12 while riding in a desert caravan.
B. the Middle Eastern Christian leader Nawfal affirmed Muhammed's prophetic calling after he had his first revelations in 610 CE.
C. Meccan Muslims were given refuge in the Christian kingdom of Axum (Abyssinia, Ethiopia) between 613 and 615 CE.
D. a Christian delegation from Najran came to consult with Muhammed at Medina in 628 CE.
E. Muhammad sent messages calling on nearby kings to become Muslims in approximately 631 CE.
A. Muhammed encountered a Christian monk in 582 CE at age 12 while riding in a desert caravan.
B. the Middle Eastern Christian leader Nawfal affirmed Muhammed's prophetic calling after he had his first revelations in 610 CE.
C. Meccan Muslims were given refuge in the Christian kingdom of Axum (Abyssinia, Ethiopia) between 613 and 615 CE.
D. a Christian delegation from Najran came to consult with Muhammed at Medina in 628 CE.
E. Muhammad sent messages calling on nearby kings to become Muslims in approximately 631 CE.
8. G.E. Perry, in his book "The Middle East: Fourteen Islamic Centuries," suggests that Muhammad's "teachings underwent so much _______ influence for a while that, in retrospect, one can imagine that Islam might have evolved into the status of a ________ sect."

A. Jewish
B. Christian
C. Zoroastrian
A. Jewish
9. The 'Covenant of Umar' granted recognition, respect, and freedom of religion to Jews, Christians, & Zoroastrians under Muslim rule. T or F
True
10. According to the Muslim author Muhammed Enan, in his book 'Decisive Moments in the History of Islam', 'The Excellent Dream' or 'Project of the Caliphate' was __________.

A. converting all peoples of the world to the religion of Islam.
B. conquering and ruling the world.
C. annihilating Christendom and the Eastern Empire.
D. all of the above. E. only one and two above.
C. annihilating Christendom and the Eastern Empire.
11. According to the Muslim historian Muhammed Enan, in 732 CE "an event happened which had the greatest and most far-reaching effect in the history of Islam and Christendom - ... This great event was ___________.

A. the battle of the Pavement of the Martyrs.
B. the battle of Tours or Poitiers.
C. both of the above.
B. the battle of Tours or Poitiers.
Regarding the Battle of Poitiers, Mark A. Noll, in "Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity," suggests that _________.

A. it is possible to exaggerate the decisive influence of this battle.
B. Charles Martel, along with his successors, came to be seen as the saviors of (Christian) Europe.
C. if Charles Martel had failed, Europe would have become Muslim and the entire course of history would have been changed.
D. all of the above.
E. only one and two above.
E. only one and two above.
In connection with the routes which Muslim armies took in their attempts to conquer Christian Europe, match the following:

1. Frontdoor: East to West
2. Backdoor: West to East

__ Sieges of Constantinople, 653 - 1453.
__ Via Spain & France in the Battle of Poitiers (Tours), 732 CE.
_1_ Sieges of Constantinople, 653 - 1453.
_2_ Via Spain & France in the Battle of Poitiers (Tours), 732 CE.
Political relations between Christian Europe & the Islamic Caliphate included ___________.

A. exchanges between Pepin & al-Mansur, 750-785 CE.
B. gifts and letters sent between Charlemagne & Harun ar-Rashid, 800-809 CE, which included a Jewish representative.
C. the Muslim Embassy to Constantinople sent by al-Mutasim (833-842 CE).
D. all of the above.
E. only one and two above.
D. all of the above.
The main issues that were negotiated in the official court exchanges between Christian Europe and the Islamic Caliphate were ________.

A. Umayyad Spain
B. safe passage through the Middle East for Latin Christians on pilgrimage to Holy Land.
C. both of the above.
C. both of the above.
Muslims, Christians, & Jews lived and worked together peacefully for several centuries in Cordoba and other parts of Islamic Spain. T or F
True
In Spanish Martyrs' Movement, also known as the 'Martyrs of Cordoba' (850-859 CE), Muhammad & Islam came to be interpreted as ________.

A. a true prophet of God.
B. a friend and supporter of Christianity.
C. the 'Anti-Christ'.
D. all of the above.
E. only one and two above.
C. the 'Anti-Christ'.
The views of Muhammed & Islam which developed in the Spanish Martyrs' Movement ____________.

A. died out within the next generation, having no lasting effect on Western Christian thought.
B. have continued to serve as a primary paradigm for the Western Christian world down to the present.
B. have continued to serve as a primary paradigm for the Western Christian world down to the present.
A militant warring spirit was developed in Christian Europe in response to _________. (MS)

A. the wars & conquests of the Roman Empire.
B. the wars & conquests of the Byzantine Empire.
C. the attacks of the Central Asian and Germanic tribes on the Roman Empire.
D. the ongoing battles with Muslim armies from both east and west as well as in the Mediterranean.
E. the assaults of the Vikings from the north and Magyars from the northeast.
A. the wars & conquests of the Roman Empire.
B. the wars & conquests of the Byzantine Empire.
C. the attacks of the Central Asian and Germanic tribes on the Roman Empire.
D. the ongoing battles with Muslim armies from both east and west as well as in the Mediterranean.
E. the assaults of the Vikings from the north and Magyars from the northeast.
The resurgence of Christian Europe against the Muslim world came through reconquest of territories from the Islamic Caliphate ____. (MS)

A. by the Byzantine Empire (867-1059).
B. in the several waves of the Spanish 'Reconquista' (1085, 1210-1266, 1466-1617).
C. during the Crusades (1095-1300s).
D. through attempts by Christian Europe to partner with the Mongols after they devastated Baghdad (1258-1310 CE).
A. by the Byzantine Empire (867-1059).
B. in the several waves of the Spanish 'Reconquista' (1085, 1210-1266, 1466-1617).
C. during the Crusades (1095-1300s).
D. through attempts by Christian Europe to partner with the Mongols after they devastated Baghdad (1258-1310 CE).