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Com 324 Midterm
Terms in this set (87)
What refers to the understanding of organizations as complex organisms that must interact with their environment to survive?
What 2 terms refer to the system property that suggests that a system is more than the sum of its parts?
What metaphor did we use to explain nonsummativity?
What term refers to the ability of system components to allow information and materials flow in and out?
What term refers to a bureaucracy shutting itself off from influences of the outside environment because environmental interruptions could hamper its smooth functioning?
What term refers to the idea that a system can reach the same final state from differing initial conditions and by a variety of paths?
What was Karl Weick's Theory?
Theory of Organizing
What does the Theory of Organizing say?
the major goal of orgs is reduction of equivocality through sensemaking
What term refers to the cycles in which organizational members introduce and react to ideas that help to make sense of the equivocal information environment?
What term refers to the ability of systems to sustain themselves and grow?
In network analysis, what is the stuff that is flowing through the linkages called?
In network analysis, what is the comm medium through which network linkages are maintained"?
In network analysis, what term refers to the number of connections in the network?
In network analysis, what term refers to whether you look at inter- or intra- analysis?
What are the 3 ways in which we define network links?
strength, symmetry, and multiplexity
What type of network link would have lots of comm flowing between it?
a strong one
What type of network link would have comm flowing from both ends?
a symmetrical one
What type of network link would have different types of comm flowing between it?
a multiplex one
In network analysis, what defines the ways in which individuals are connected with eachother?
In network analysis, what refers to someone who doesn't talk to anyone else?
In network analysis, what refers to someone who speaks for a whole group?
In network analysis, what refers to someone who communicates between two or more groups?
What is the view of orgs that emphasizes the importance of human needs in the workplace?
What is the view of orgs that acknowledges contributions of classical and especially human relations approaches to organizing that concentrate on the contribution of all employees in reaching org goals?
What was McGregor's Theory?
Theory X and Theory Y
What does Theory X say about people?
they are inherently lazy and will do as little work as possible
What does Theory Y say about people?
men will exercise self-control and seeks to learn because working is as natural as play or rest
What type of approach does Theory Y fall under?
What is Frederik Taylor's Theory?
What are the main ideas of Scientific Mgmt?
there is a best and most scientific way to do any job
What is Fayol's Theory?
What is the main idea of Classical Mgmt?
effectiveness is function of organizational design
According to Taylor, how do you determine the best way to do every job?
time and motion studies
What is Maslow's theory?
Hierarchy of Needs
What is the main idea behind Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
humans are motivated by a number of basic needs including physiological, safety, affiliation, esteem, and self-actualization needs
What was the research that attempted to discover aspects of the task environment that would maximize worker output and hence improve organizational efficiency , but which lead to explanations that revolved around the social and emotional needs of workers?
What did they learn from the Illumination Studies?
lighting didn't matter, but productivity went up in both groups
What did they learn from the Relay Assembly Test Room Studies?
being made to feel special had the most effect
What did they learn from the Interview Program?
workers wanted to talk about feelings
What did they learn from the Bank Wiring Room Studies?
social group influence has more pull than formal org influencee
Who were Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and what did they do?
the real life Cheaper by the Dozen family, time and motion studies regarding having kids
Who did the Hawthorne studies?
Who was the female Human relations Theorist?
Mary Parker Follett
What two elements do Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid take into account?
concern for people, concern for production
What is considered low concern for people and low concern for production?
What is considered low concern for people and high concern for production?
What is considered medium concern for people and production?
What is considered high concern for people and low concern for production?
What is considered high concern for both people and production?
Human Relations: content of comm?
Human Relations: direction of comm?
Human Relations: channel of comm?
face to face
Human Relations: style of comm?
Human Resources: content of comm?
innovation, social, and task
Human Resources: direction of comm?
Human Resources: channel of comm?
matched to task at hand
Human Resources: style of comm?
Describe the comm as information transfer model?
if i send a message and you receive it and understand we have created meaning
Describe the comm as transactional process model?
we have been successful if we have created shared meaning
Describe the comm as strategic control model?
comm is a tool for controlling the org
Describe the comm as a balance of creativity and constraint model?
there's tension and we respond to it moment by moment
What was Deal and Kennedy's big idea about culture?
business success can be enhanced through the development of a "strong" culture
What is necessary to have a strong culture?
values being held, heroes exemplifying values, rites and rituals to celebrate values, cultural network institutes and reinforces values
What is the colloquial way of describing culture?
'the way we do things around here'
What are the 4 issues highlighted between prescriptive approaches to culture and what we do today?
1. org cultures are complicated
2. org cultures are emergent
3. org cultures are not unitary
4. org cultures are often ambiguous
What was Schein's model of comm?
What is the outer layer of the onion?
artifacts and behaviors
What is the middle layer of the onion?
individual and group values
What is the inner layer of the onion?
From whose work did Critical Theory come?
What type of power is relatively stable entity that people and groups possess?
What type of power is a result of communicative interactions and relationships?
What type of power is based on deep structures that produce and reproduce power?
In what frame of reference is emphasis placed on common org goals and conflict is seen as negative? They want to fix the org to increase productivity
In what frame of reference does the org consist of many groups with divergent interests and conflict is positive? They want to describe what's going on
In what frame of reference is the org viewed as a battleground of power and conflict is viewed as larger class struggles? They want to expose power inequalities
What perspective takes a unitary frame of reference?
classical, Hres, Hrel
What perspective takes a pluralist frame of reference?
systems, cultural, CCO
What perspective takes a radical frame of reference?
According to a critical theorist, how is power reinforced and maintained?
through org discourse (jokes, etc)
What term refers to the taken for granted assumptions about reality that influence perceptions of situations and events?
What term refers to a dominant group leading a subdominant group into believing that their power is the norm?
What term refers to the liberation of people from unnecessarily restrictive traditions, ideologies, assumptions, power relations, identity formations, and so forth, that inhibit or distort opportunities for autonomy, clarification of genuine needs and wants, and thus greater and lasting satisfaction?
What term refers to how workers can exert counterpressure on the exercise of power and control?
Explain container vs. constitutive
Most scholars look at the comm within an org (container) but the constitutive approach looks at orgs AS comm
Flat Earth vs. Round earth?
container vs. constituative
you may realize there are better ways to do something
What are the 4 Flows?
1. Membership negotiation
3. Activity Coordination
4. Institutional Positioning
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