Upgrade to remove ads
Politics of the United States
Chapter 2: The Constitution
Terms in this set (27)
A loosely organized group (never a formal political party) that opposed ratification of the Constitution, which the group believed would jeopardize individual freedom and states' rights. After ratification, the efforts of the Antifederalists led to adoption of the first ten amendments, the Bill of Rights.
Articles of Confederation
The compact among the thirteen original states that formed the basis of the first national government of the United States from 1779 to 1789, when it was supplanted by the Constitution.
A legislature composed of two houses or chambers. The U.S. Congress and every U.S. state legislature (with the exception of Nebraska's, which is unicameral) are bicameral legislatures.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
checks and balances
A constitutional mechanism giving each branch some oversight and control of the other branches. Examples are the presidential veto, Senate approval of presidential appointments, and judicial review of presidential and congressional actions.
The clause in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution that gives Congress the authority to regulate commerce with other nations and among the states.
A political system in which states or regional governments retain ultimate authority except for those powers they expressly delegate to a central government.
Declaration of Independence
The document drafted by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, declaring the independence of the thirteen colonies from Great Britain.
A body of electors in each state, chosen by voters, who formally elect the president and vice president of the United States. Each state's number of electoral votes equals its representation in Congress; the District of Columbia has three votes. An absolute majority of the total electoral vote is required to elect a president and vice president.
A group of people sharing common interests who are opposed to other groups with competing interests. James Madison defined a faction as any group with objectives contrary to the general interests of society.
Name given to two related, but not identical, groups in late-eighteenth-century American politics. The first group, led by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, supported ratification of the Constitution in 1787 and 1788. Subsequently, Hamilton and John Adams led the second group, the Federalist Party, which dominated national politics during the administrations of George Washington (1789-1797) and Adams (1797-1801).
The agreement between large and small states at the Constitutional Convention (1787) that decided the selection and composition of Congress. The compromise stipulated that the lower chamber be chosen by direct popular vote and that the upper chamber be selected by the state legislatures.
Power given by a state to a locality to enact legislation and manage its own affairs locally.
The authority of a court to declare legislature and executive acts unconstitutional and therefore invalid.
The result of legislative vote trading. For example, legislators representing urban districts may cot for an agricultural bill provided that legislators from rural districts vote for a mass transit bill.
Constitutional reformers led by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton who sought to replace the Articles of Confederation. Opposed at the Constitutional Convention (1787) by state's rights proponents, the nationalists favored a strong national legislature elected directly by the citizenry rather than the states and a national government that could veto any state laws it deemed unfit.
necessary and proper clause
The last clause of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution. This clause grant Congress the authority to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" and to execute those laws.
New Jersey Plan
New Jersey delegate William Paterson's proposal for reforming the Articles of Confederation. Introduced at the Constitutional Convention (1787), the New Jersey Plan was favored by delegates who supported states' rights.
A theory describing a political system in which all significant social interests freely compete with one another for influence over the government's policy decisions.
Citizens' delegation of authority to their agents in government, with the ability to rescind that authority.
Uprising of 1786 led by Daniel Shays, a former captain in the Continental Army and a bankrupt Massachusetts farmer, to protest the state's high taxes and aggressive debt collection policies. The rebellion demonstrated a fundamental weakness of the Articles of Confederation-its inability to keep the peace-and stimulated interest in strengthening the national government, leading to the Philadelphia convention that framed the Constitution.
Safeguards against a too-powerful national government that were favored by one group of delegates to the Constitutional Convention (1787). State's rights advocates supported retaining those features of the Articles of Confederation that guarded state prerogatives, such as state participation in the selection of national officeholders and equal representation for each state regardless of population.
A clause in Article VI of the Constitution declaring that national laws are the "supreme" law of the land and therefore take precedence over any laws adopted by states or localities.
"take care" clause
The provision in Article II, Section 3, of the Constitution instructing the president to "take Care that the Laws by faithfully executed."
Constitutional blueprint drafted by James Madison that sought to reform the Article of Confederation. Introduced at the Constitutional Convention (1787), the plan proposed a tripartite national government, but unlike the subsequent Constitution, it provided for a popularly elected legislature that would dominate national policymaking.
Articles of Confederation
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
The Logic of American Politics Ch. 2
The Constitution: Chapter 2
The Logic of American Politics
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Chapter 6: Congress
Chapter 4: Civil Rights
Chapter 1: The Logic of American Politics
Chapter 3: Federalism
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Skill IV: Patient education: Brushing and flossing
11th U.S. Hist. Textbook Page 77-84
7th FINAL Poetry and Figurative Language…