CCQ #5: The Legacy of the Crusades in Western-Islamic Relations

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In the 11th century, what was the great problem which neither the Western European Church nor State could resolve?

__ The collapse of the European banking system
__ The constant invasions by Vikings and Magyars
__ The constant warring between the lords of Europe
__ The dispute over succession to the imperial throne
__ The continuing push of Islam into Europe
__ The constant warring between the lords of Europe
The Church sponsored a peace movement which finally resolved Europe's great problem. T or F
True
The idea which Pope Urban II came up with was ___________.

__ holy war.
__ chivalry competitions.
__ ecumenical (general) church councils.
__ separation of church and state.
__ the replacement of feudalism with capitalism.
__ holy war.
When Pope Urban II addressed the Council of Peace in Claremont, France in 1095, the solution he proposed to the constant internal warring of feudal lord against feudal lord which threatened Europe was ___________.

__ to harness the agression in Europe for the good of Christianity.
__ the rescue of Jerusalem from its Muslim rulers through 'The Crusades'.
__ both of the above.
__ both of the above.
In order to appeal to the knights, Jerusalem was depicted as ____.

__ a loving, faithful mother.
__ a kidnapped child.
__ a mistreated horse.
__ a young woman in distress.
__ a brother calling for help.
__ a young woman in distress.
Enflamed by visions of an entirely Christian Europe, participants in the First Crusade became ____________.

__ anti-Byzantine.
__ anti-Islamic.
__ anti-Jewish.
__ anti-Protestant.
__ anti-Jewish.
On their way to the Holy Land, the Crusaders grew to be _________________ European towns.

__ loved and respected for the way they protected and supported
__ hated and feared for how they plundered and wreaked havoc on
__ hated and feared for how they plundered and wreaked havoc on
In the eyewitness report of the siege of Antioch, ____________

__ the shrieks of countless people rose, making a terrifying noise throughout the city.
__ every street on every side was filled with corpses so that nobody could endure to be there because of the stench.
__ no one could walk along the narrow paths of the city, except over the bodies of the dead.
__ all of the above
__ only one and two above
__ all of the above
According to Frankish eyewitnesses Radulph of Caen, Albert of Aix, in the taking of Ma'ara _______________.

__ the Crusaders boiled adult Muslims up for soup and skewered Muslim children on spits, grilling them over open fires, and eating them.
__ the eating of Turks and Saracens (Muslims) was considered worse than eating dogs.
__ both of the above.
__ the Crusaders boiled adult Muslims up for soup and skewered Muslim children on spits, grilling them over open fires, and eating them.
One Crusader, Raymond of Aguilers, in recording the eventual slaughter of Jerusalem's inhabitants by the Crusaders, said _______. (MS)

__ "some of our men, and this was more merciful, cut off the heads of their enemies."
__ "others tortured them long by casting them into the flames."
__ "piles of heads, hands, and feet were to be seen in the streets of the city."
__ "men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins."
__ "some of our men, and this was more merciful, cut off the heads of their enemies."
__ "others tortured them long by casting them into the flames."
__ "piles of heads, hands, and feet were to be seen in the streets of the city."
__ "men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins."
Raymond of Aguilers said that the slaughter which the Crusaders inflicted upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem was ______.

__ "a despicable and tragic violation of God's heart and will."
__ "a just and splendid judgment of God."
__ "proof of European Christian superiority."
__ "the greatest victory Christian Europe had ever known."
__ "a just and splendid judgment of God."
According to Karen Armstrong, within five months of their siege, by Christmas time, the Crusaders had _____.

__ denounced their act and restored the city so that there was hardly a trace of the slaughter which had occurred at Jerusalem.
__ turned a thriving, populous city into a stinking channel house, leaving a terrible stench of death in the air.
__ turned a thriving, populous city into a stinking channel house, leaving a terrible stench of death in the air.
While the slaughter continued outside in the streets, some of the Crusaders went, with tears streaming down their faces, to ______ at the most sacred Christian site in Jerusalem, 'The Church of the Holy Sepulchre' allegedly containing the tomb from which Jesus had risen.

__ confess their sin and renounce the violence and bloodshed
__ worship and give thanks
__ worship and give thanks
When the Muslim ruler Salah ad-Din recaptured Jerusalem, he _____________.

__ had all the Christian men slaughtered and their women and children sold into slavery.
__ guaranteed peace for everyone, allowing the Christians to either continue living and worshiping in Jerusalem or return home to Europe.
__ both of the above.
__ guaranteed peace for everyone, allowing the Christians to either continue living and worshiping in Jerusalem or return home to Europe.
During the period of the Crusades, _____________.

__ Christians and Muslims warred against one another continuously with ceaseless bloodshed and fighting.
__considerable periods of peace punctuated this era of holy war with 120 Muslim-Crusader treaties mentioned in the sources.
__considerable periods of peace punctuated this era of holy war with 120 Muslim-Crusader treaties mentioned in the sources.
Examples of efforts at peacemaking and peaceful exchanges between Western Christians and ME Muslims during or in later relation to the Crusades include ____________. (Mark all that apply)

__ the missionary efforts via peaceful religious dialogue of St. Francis of Assisi & his 12 companions in 1219.
__ the interactions of the Muslim chronicler Usama with a retired Crusader fluent in Arabic in Antioch.
__ the intervention of the Knights Templars to protect Usama from a recently arrived fanatic Frank during his prayers at al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem.
__ the interactions of Emperor Frederick II of Sicily with al-Kamil and other Muslim leaders of Egypt and Palestine.
__ the 'Reconciliation March' of small groups of Christians across the Crusader routes from 1995-99 requesting forgiveness from Muslim and Jewish peoples along the way.
__ the missionary efforts via peaceful religious dialogue of St. Francis of Assisi & his 12 companions in 1219.
__ the interactions of the Muslim chronicler Usama with a retired Crusader fluent in Arabic in Antioch.
__ the intervention of the Knights Templars to protect Usama from a recently arrived fanatic Frank during his prayers at al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem.
__ the interactions of Emperor Frederick II of Sicily with al-Kamil and other Muslim leaders of Egypt and Palestine.
__ the 'Reconciliation March' of small groups of Christians across the Crusader routes from 1995-99 requesting forgiveness from Muslim and Jewish peoples along the way.
In the year of Arghun's death, which was 1291 CE, the last Crusader stronghold of Acre fell and, with it, the hopes of a useful alliance in Palestine and Syria between ________ and Crusaders.

__ the Armenian Christians
__ the Georgian Christians
__ the Mongols
__ all of the above
__ only one and two above
__ the Mongols
Other important historical circumstances occurring in the Islamic Middle East during the Crusading period included ____________.

__ The 1138 Charter of Protection granted by Abbasid Caliph to Church of the East Patriarch, indicating ongoing good relations between Muslims and Eastern Christians.
__ The 1141 Buddhist-Christian Karakitai catastrophe assaulting Islam in Central Asia.
__ The Mongol attack on the Muslim world in Central Asia in 1219, culminating in the sack of Baghdad in 1258 and the end of the Abbasid Caliphate.
__ all of the above
__ only one and two above
__ all of the above
The impact of the Crusades on the economy, culture, and politics of the Middle East and Islamic world during the crusader period (late 11th to 14th centuries) was __________.

__ far-reaching and long-lasting.
__ relatively limited and short-lived.
__ relatively limited and short-lived.
Which of the following was NOT an impact of the Crusades on Europe?

__ The unification of Europeans in a common cause
__ The emergence of a common European identity
__ The stirring up of trade
__ The establishment of new systems of tax
__ The increase of the wealth of the church
__ The discovery of Arabic Islamic science
__ The discovery of Arabic Islamic science
According to Karen Armstrong, the Crusades ___________.

__ were a complete disaster for Western Christianity.
__ were the first cooperative act of the new Europe as she fought her way out of barbarism and became a major world power.
__ left behind a legacy of hatred and antagonism between the Western Christian and Islamic worlds.
__ all of the above.
__ only one and two above.
__ all of the above.
The Crusades have continued to inspire or serve as a reference for Western (Christian) conquest of the Middle East (and other parts of the world) throughout history, as seen in _______________. (MS)

__ the conquest of the Americas.
__ the Crusades against the Ottoman Turks in the early modern era.
__ the later takeover of the Middle East by British, French, and U.S. powers from the time of Napoleon down to WWII.
__ the U.S. 'War on Terror' and 'War in Iraq'
__ the conquest of the Americas.
__ the Crusades against the Ottoman Turks in the early modern era.
__ the later takeover of the Middle East by British, French, and U.S. powers from the time of Napoleon down to WWII.
In late 19th c. Britain there was "...a particularly wide range of references to the Crusades in all kinds of contexts, ____________.

__ from church windows to the House of Lords;
__ from pride in one's ancestors to visits to the Holy Land;
__ from children's literature to reenactments, not only on the stage but in real life, as military men fancied themselves, and their campaigns, in the role of holy warriors, holy wars."
__ all of the above.
__ only one and two above.
__ all of the above.
It is especially the events of ______ and after which have created intense interest in the Crusades and the conflict between Christianity and Islam and the West in the Middle Ages.

__ World War II
__ the Cold War
__ 2001
__ all of the above.
__ only one and two above.
__ 2001