AP Biology - Cellular Respiration
Terms in this set (52)
The First Step of Cellular Respiration
1 Glucose is broken into two pyruvate, releasing 2 ATP. This is when and where NAD+ steals its' e-, turning it into NADH.
During Glycolysis, which occurs in the cytoplasm,
2 pyruvate are converted into 2 Acetyl CoA. The 2 Acetyl Coa then diffuse into the Mitochondria. They are then used in the Kreb's Cycle.
The Second Step of Cellular Respiration
2 Acetyl CoA's electrons are stolen by FAD, converting it to FADH2.
During the Kreb's Cycle, which occurs in the Mitochondrial Matrix,
Electron Transport Chain
The Third Step of Cellular Respiration
FADH2 and NADH transfer their electrons to the ETC. The -Es from the two molecules pass the electrons down, pumping out H+ atoms every time they go down a level. The Electron finally stops when it reaches Oxygen (the last electron receptor) and turns into water.
During the Electron Transport Chain, which occurs in the inner membrane and is INSIDE of oxidative phosphorylation,
H+ atoms then diffuse from High to Low concentration, after accumulating in the intermembrane space. They diffuse into a protein and then travel through ATP Synthase to produce and are then brought back into the Matrix. The H+ do not turn into ATP.!
After the ETC is completed
cellular respiration reaction
C6H12O6 (Sugar) + 6O2 ( Oxygen) --> 6CO2 ( Carbon Dioxide) + 6H2O (Water)+ ATP
aerobic cellular respiration
reaction that uses glucose and oxygen to create ATP molecules. Carbon dioxide and water are by products.
anaerobic cellular respiration
reaction that uses glucose as a reactant to create a few ATP molecules. No oxygen is used in this reaction.
step of cellular respiration where 1 glucose is broken down into 2 pyruvate
reactants of glycolysis
1 glucose, NAD+, and ADP + P are...
products of glycolysis
2 pyruvate, NADH, & ATP are...
reactants of krebs cycle
acetyl CoA, ADP + P, NAD+ & FAD are...
products of krebs cycle
CO2, ATP, and NADH & FADH2 are...
location of glycolysis
matrix of mitochondria
location of krebs cycle
type of phosphorylation performed in krebs cycle
type of phosphorylation performed in glycolysis
2 pyruvate to 2 acetyl CoA
conversion that occurs between glycolysis and krebs cycle
ETC & chemiosmosis
passes down electron down a chain, releases H+ and a tiny bit of energy
inner membrane of mitochondria
location of ETC
last acceptor of ETC
proton motive force through an ATP synthase, as a result of H+ gradient (movement of hydrogens pumped out from ETC through a protein, then through ATP Synthase, moving from High Conc. to Low Conc)
enzyme that helps in the production of ATP
anaerobic respiration that produces ethanol and a little bit of ATP
How does Alchohol Fermentation occur?
During Glycolisis, 2 NAD+ takes an electron to become NADH. 2 NADH then donates an electron to 2-Acetaldehyde, producing Ethanol. The loop between 2 NAD + and 2 NADH occurs forever.
lactic acid fermentation
anaerobic respiration that produces lactate and a little bit of ATP
36 or 38
number of ATP made in aerobic cellular respiration
reaction that uses glucose and oxygen to create ATP molecules. Carbon dioxide and water are products
sequence of reactions in the mitochondria that uses oxygen and allows many ATP molecules to be generated
The site of Oxidative Phosphorylation is
the Electron Transport Chain
During Oxidative Phosphorylation,
electrons are transfered from electron donors to electron acceptors such as Oxygen
Oxidative Phosphorylation is basically
ETC + Chemiosmosis
Glycolysis and The Kreb Cycle make ____ ATP each
(Total of 4, 2 from Glyc, 2 from KC)
What makes ADP + P turn into ATP during Glyco and the Kreb Cycle
1. Substrate Level Phosphorylation
2. 4 ATP are produced in total
Lactid Acid and Alcohol Fermentation are both forms of
Anaerobic Cellular Respiration
Three Steps involved in Glycolysis
1. Coenzyme A binds to a two C-Fragment
2. NAD+ reduced to NADH
3. CO2 breaks off a Carbon
If muscle cells consume oxygen too fast, it will cause
1. More trouble making ATP
2. Cant carry out Oxi. Phos.
3. Will consume glucose faster
Maltose is the
substrate for alcoholic fermentation
During Cellular Respiration, ________ is reduced and _____ is oxidized
Oxygen (to H2O); Glucose (to CO2)
The order of Electron Transport in Mitochondria
NADH -> ETC -> P+ Gradient -> Chemiosmosis
Lactate is formed in Lactid Acid Fermentation to
The whole process of CRESP produces 36 or 38 ATP from one glucose. The rest of the energy is conerted into
Gaining an electron is
Losing an electron is
The following substances involved in subs. phos. phor. are
ADP, ATP and O2
How are ADP and ATP involved in oxi. phos.?
ADP is converted into ATP by a linkage of a Pi group.
What is the purpose of Oxygen in oxi. phos?
It functions as the e- accetpor in oxi. phos. inside of the ETC