According to the ____ hypothesis, the criminality of females is masked because of the generally benevolent and protective attitude toward women in our society.
According to Wolfgang, Figlio, and Sellin's cohort study, what percentage of chronic offenders was responsible for a significant proportion of all serious crime?
The estimated rate increased by 1%
According to UCR data, what change was evidenced in the estimated rate of violent crime from 2005 to 2006?
Exhibit the Same Finding
Official arrest records indicate that African Americans are arrested at a higher rate than members of other racial groups. Self-report data:
Juveniles who started their delinquent careers early and who committed serious violent crimes throughout adolescence
One of the most important findings from cohort studies is the concept of persistence or the continuity of crime. Who is most likely to persist in a criminal career?
Racial Threat Hypothesis
Institutional racism undermines faith in social and political institutions and weakens confidence in the justice system. According to the ____, as the percentage of minorities in the population increases so too does the amount of social control that police direct at minority group members
Age is inversely related to crime - younger people commit more crime
How is age correlated with crime?
index crimes, arson
Part I crimes are also referred to as ____ and include: murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, motor vehicle theft, larceny, and ____.
A Self-Report Survey
A research approach that asks participants to describe their recent and lifetime criminal activity is termed
Unlike the violent crime rate, the property crime rate has continued to fall.
According to UCR data, what is known about the trend in property crime rates?
measure the nature and extent of criminal behavior, track changes in the crime rate, measure the individual and social factors that may influence criminality
Criminologists collect and analyze crime data in order to:
on the first day of the month.
Due to the amount of disposable income at this time, crime rates may be higher
If criminologists want to see the direct effect of one factor on another, such as determining whether viewing a violent TV show will cause viewers to act aggressively, they conduct:
Because cohort research is extremely difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, another approach is to take an intact cohort from the past and collect data from their educational, family, police, and hospital records. This research format is known as a/an:
Most chronic offenders repeat their criminal acts after their correctional release.
Chronic offenders have become a central focus of crime control policy. Sentencing policies, such as "three strikes" legislation are designed to incapacitate chronic offenders for long periods of time without hope of probation or parole. Why is this?
the ability of the NCVS to measure unreported crime
Although differences between the UCR and the NCVS abound, the greatest distinction between the two has to do with:
Each of these explanations might account for the variance between male and female crime rates
Which explanation might account for the variance between male and female crime rates?
____ are associated with those living in poverty who engage in disproportionate amounts of rape and assault as a means of expressing their rage, frustration, and anger against society.
Reporting practices, methodological problems, and law enforcement practices
Validity issues impact the UCR. Which of the following best portrays the validity concern/s for this data collection method?
Since the early 1990s, violent and property victimizations have been in decline
What trends in violent and property victimizations are indicated in the NCVS data?
When researchers want a survey to be representative of all members of society they conduct
False (self report)
T/F The "missing cases" phenomenon is a validity concern present within the Uniform Crime Report
The crime rate would begin to rise about the year 2016
The nation's birthrate experienced a dramatic rise in the year 2000. What impact would this large number of births have on the crime rate?
All these statements are known about the relationship between the economy and crime.
What is known about the relationship between the economy and crime?
Those unable to obtain desired goods and services through conventional means may consequently resort to theft and other illegal activities. These activities are known as
Liberal feminist theory
What theory or hypothesis focused attention on the social and economic role of women in society and its relationship to female crime rates?
Reports/arrests, crime rates per 100,000 , changes in rates of crime over time
Which of the following methods does the UCR use to express crime data?
People with a history of violence and mental disease are less likely to kill when they use a knife or other weapon. Concealed handgun laws have little effect on local crime rates. People who carry guns may be at greater risk of victimization than those who do not. Research on right-to-carry concealed handguns indicates all of these findings.
The defensive use of guns is a debated issue. What does research indicate about the effectiveness of "right-to-carry concealed handgun" laws?
Parental supervision, average grades, school attendance
Which of the following sets of factors would not predict chronic offending?
The Uniform Crime Report
The best known and most widely cited source of official criminal statistics is
exert a significant influence on the nation's values and morals.
When discussing future trends in crime, Steffensmeier and Harer believe the American culture will be greatly affected by baby boomers, now in their late 50s and 60s, who will
The greater willingness of police to arrest females
While the "emancipation of women" has had relatively little influence on female crime rates, there has been an increase in the number of females arrested. According to Steffensmeier's research, what might account for this increase?