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21 terms

AP Bio Chapter 13 - Vocab

some of the vocabulary is in the middle of the sentence, shown by ______. If there is more than one vocab word in a sentence, write your first word, put ; then a space, then your next word
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heredity
the transmission of traits from one generation to another is called inheritance, or ______
variation
offspring differ somewhat in appearance from parents and siblings
genetics
______ is the scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation
genes
parents give their offspring encoded information in the form of hereditary units called ______
locus
a gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome is called the gene's _____
asexual reproduction
in _____ _________, a single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of all its genes to its offspring
clone
an individual that reproduces asexually gives rise to a _____, a group of genetically identical individuals
sexual reproduction
in _______ _________, two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combos of genes inherited from the parents
life cycle
a ____ ______ is the genereation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism, from conception to production of its own offspring
somatic cell
in humans, each ____ ______ (any cell except gametes) has 46 chromosomes
sex chromosomes; autosomes
X and Y chromosomes are ___ _________. the other chromosomes are called _______
diploid cell
any cell with two chromosomes is called a _____ _____
haploid cells
gametes contain a single chromosome set; they are _____ ______
fertilization
the union of gametes is called __________
zygote
the resulting fertilized egg, or ______, is diploid because it contains two haploid sets of chromosomes bearing genes representing the maternal and paternal family lines
meiosis
the hypothetical situation of constantly increasing chromosome number is sexually reproducing organisms is avoided through the process of ________
alternation of generations
plants and osme species of algae exhibit a second type of life cycle called _______ __ _________
sporophyte
the multicellular diploid stage is called _________
spores
meiosis in the sporophyte produces haploid cells called _________
gametophyte
a spore divides mitotically to generate a multicellular haploid stage called the __________
recombinant chromosomes
crossing over produces ________ __________, individual chromosomes that carry genes (DNA) derived from two different parents