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103 terms

GI Week 1

STUDY
PLAY
gastrin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Site of Production: Stomach antrum
gastrin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Site of Production: Modest duodenal production
secretin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Site of Production: duodenum
CCK
GIP
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Site of Production: duodenum + jejunum
CCK
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Site of Production: Modest ileum + colon production
gastrin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Stimulus for Release: stomach(aa+peptides)
gastrin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Stimulus for Release: parasympathetic nerves
CCK
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Stimulus for Release: small intestine(aa+fat)
secretin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Stimulus for Release: small intestine(H+)
GIP
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Stimulus for Release: small intestine(glucose+fat)
gastrin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Inhibition of Release: stomach(H+)
gastrin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Inhibition of Release: somatostatin
gastrin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: stimulates stomach H+ secretion
CCK
Secretin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: Inhibits stomach H+ secretion
gastrin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: Stimulates stomach motility
CCK
Secretin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: Inhibits stomach motility
gastrin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: stimulates stomach growth
CCK
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: potentiates secretin stimulated pancreas HCO3-
Secretin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: stimulates pancreas HCO3-
CCK
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: stimulates pancreas enzymes
Secretin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: potentiates CCK stimulated pancreas enzymes
GIP
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: stimulates pancreas insulin
CCK
Gastrin
Secretin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: stimulates exocrine pancreas growth
secretin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: Stimulates Liver HCO3-
CCK
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: potentiates secretin liver hco3-
CCK
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: stimulates gall bladder contraction
CCK
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: Relaxes Sphincter of Oddi
gastrin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: stimulates ileum motility
gastrin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: stimulates small intestine growth
gastrin
Gastrointestinal Hormone.
Effector response: stimulates mass movement in large intestine
mucous acini
Note: flattened basolateral nuclei

What are these structures?
Striated duct
Serous acini
Parotid gland
What is the central structure? What is it surrounded by? What anatomical structure is this?
Acinus
intercalated duct
striated duct
What is the sequence of the salivon?
saliva
Composed of Epidermal Growth Factor+IgA+alpha amylase
minor salivary glands
diffuse structures (as opposed to paired) with a mucous product
Striated duct
Salivary gland
Note: basolateral interdigitations
Note: long mitochondria w dense cristae

What microstructure is this? What anatomical structure?
Striated duct
Serous acini
Parotid gland
What is the black arrow? What is it surrounded by? Considering the surroundings of the structure at the black arrow, what anatomical structure is this?
stenson duct
major duct from the parotid gland
Parotid gland
zymogen
What structure? What is the red material at the apex of the acinar cells?
Adipocytes
Mucous acini
Salivary gland
What is the Upper arrow?:
What is the Lower arrow?:
What structure?
Striated duct
Serous acini
Mucous acini
Submandibular gland
What is the blue arrow on?
What are the red stain structures?
What are the clear staining structures?
Considering the ratio of red:clear staining structures, what organ is this?
wharton duct
What is the major duct of the submandibular gland?
Submandibular gland sialolith
What is the diagnosis?
Calcium Phosphate
What are sialoliths composed of?
Mucous acini
Sublingual gland
What are the clear staining structures? Considering the abundance of these structures, which organ is this?
Serous demilune
Sublingual gland
Submandibular gland
Parotid gland
What are these mucous secreting acinus capped by serous secreting cells secreting into a common lumen called? Which organs could this be? Which could it not be? (i.e. which gland has no mucous elements)
Exocrine pancreas
Pancreatic duct
Note the organization into lobules separated by connective tissue.
What organ is this? What is the arrow pointing to?
acinar cells
98% of exocrine pancrease is composed of what cells?
Exocrine pancreas
Nucleus+ReR
zymogen
Note: basophilic basolaterally; eosinophilic lumenally.
What organ? What is staining basophilic on the basolateral end (i.e. what attracts hemotoxylin)? What is staining eosinophilic on the lumenal end (i.e. what attracts eosin)?
exocrine pancreas
What organ?
exocrine pancreas
zymogen granules
What organ? What is staining black?
Langerhans islet
Endocrine
What is the arrow pointing to? Is this structure exocrine pancreas or endocrine pancreas? Note the thin connective tissue veil and the vessel within the structure, giving access to circulation.
Liver
Glisson capsule
What structure? What is the arrow on?
central vein
Portal vein or central vein?
terminal hepatic venule
Portal triad
Portal vein
Hepatic artery
Bile duct
What is this a picture of?
Note the extremely thin lining of A. What is A?
Note that B does not have a cuboidal lining. What is B?
Note the cuboidal lining of C. What is C?
liver
What organ?
Liver
Central vein
efferent
What organ? What is A? Is an afferent or efferent vessel?
Sinusoid discontinuous capillaries
hepatocytes
What are the blue Arrow on?
Note the cuboidal cells that face the clear spaces on 2 sides. What are these cells?
Ser
Rer
Rer
Regarding hepatocytes, what organelle has the cytochrome p450 enzymes?
Clotting factors? Albumin?
Hepatocyte
Disse space
The arrow is on a very euchromatic nucleus, indicative of a lot of transcription. What cell is the arrow on? What is the area between the endothelium and the cell?
Ito Hepatic stellate cell
Disse space
Bile canaliculi
What is A? It is located between the hepatocyte and the endothelium. What is this area called? What is the blue arrow on?
Ito Hepatic stellate cell
liver pericyte; lay down EM in fibrosis; stores fat
Ito Hepatic Stellate cell
can differentiated into: endothelial, connective tissue, smooth muscle
Sinusoid lumen
Disse space
Pore
Red blood cell
This is a Sinusoid capillary of the liver.
What is the Black arrow on?
What is the Red arrow on?
What is the Yellow arrow on?
What is the Green arrow on?
Kupffer macrophages
liver
Note cells taking up the India ink. What are these cells? What organ?
Kupffer Macrophage
What cell is the arrow on?
liver kupffer macrophage
eats digested material before it reaches circulation
Gall bladder
Note the simple columnar epithelium. This section shows a muscularis externa but no muscularis mucosa. What organ is this?
Gall bladder
Concentrate bile
This simple columnar epithelium is very absorptive. What organ is this? What does the absorptive capacity function to do?
Sublingual gland
Note the striated duct surrounded by mostly mucous acini. What organ?
Omphalocele
week 10-11
What is the diagnosis?
This is a failure of return. The midgut herniation has persisted. When did the failure occur?
volvulus
midgut rotation
week 10-11
What is this red infarct called? There is an increased risk of this occurring if there is an embryonic failure of what? when?
omphalomesenteric vitelline duct
cecum
meckel ileum diverticulum
What is the upper arrow on?
What is the lower arrow on?
The upper arrow structure has persisted. What is this called?
Meckel ileum diverticulum
persistent vitalline duct
What is the diagnosis? What is the protruding structure?
Tracheoesophageal fistula
What is the result of a esophagotracheal septum fail?
Annular pancreas
duodenal obstruction
pancreatitis
peptic ulcer
If there are two ventral pancreatic bud, and they migrate dorsal on opposite sides of the gut, what will be the result? What are sequelae risks with such a defect?
celiac trunk t12
superior mesenteric artery l1
what is a? what vertebral level in the adult?
What is b? what vertebral level in the adult?
inferior mesenteric artery L3
allantois
vitelline duct
What is c? What vertebral level in the adult?
What is D? What is E?
median umbilical ligament
urachal cyst
What does the allantois degenerate to become in the adult? What is an allantois lumen persistency called?
mesoderm
What tissue does the urorectal septum derive from?
Urorectal fistula
What is the result if the Tourneux and Rathke folds do not fuse?
imperforate anus
anal membrane regression
What is the diagnosis? What failed?
superior mesenteric artery
internal iliac artery
The anal membrane is the junction of endoderm and ectoderm. Artery supplies the area superior to the anal membrane? Inferior?
Skeletal
Proximal 1/3 esophagus
What kind of muscle is in the Muscular Externa HERE? Where is this?
Esophagus
Stomach
Note the transition (arrow) of stratified squamous epithelium to simple columnar epithelium. What junction is this?
Parietal Cells HCl
Chief Cells pepsinogen
A:What are the red stain cells (lots of mitochondria)? What product?
B:What are the purple staining cells? What product?
meissner
The parasympathic ganglia in the submucosa stimulates epithelial secretion. Is this Meissner or Auerbach?
submucosa
This is a relatively large blood vessel. What layer of the gi tissue would this be found in?
Auerbach Plexus
Inner oblique
Inner circular
Outer longitudinal
This is the stomach Muscular Externa with nerve plexus. The plexus stimulates peristalsis. What is the nerve plexus? What are the muscle layers of the stomach muscular externa?
Ulcer
Submucosa
What is the diagnosis? What layer of gi tissue are these ruptures blood vessels found?
Loose areolar connective tissue
Eosinophils lymphocytes
Goblet cell
In these villi, what tissue is the left arrow on? What cells are found in this tissue?
What cell is the right arrow on?
goblet cell
Lieberkuhn Crypt
Paneth Cells
lysozyme
What structure are the black arrows pointing to? What cells make up this structure? What component causes these cells to stain so eosinophilic?
Brunner glands
Alkaline mucus
duodenum
What structures are at A? What does it secrete? Where in the GI is this? Note: the sparsity of goblet cells.
Muscularis mucosa
Duodenum
What layer is the blue arrow on?
Where is this in the gi?
Peyer Patch
Immune
Ileum
What is this microstructure called? What is its function? Where is this in the gi?
Peyer patch
M cell
APC
ileum
What is this a picture of? What cell is the arrow on? What is its function? Where in the gi is this?
colon
Note the abundance of goblet cells. Where in the gi is this?
colon
This Alcian blue stain highlights mucus blue. Given of the goblet cells, where in the gi is this?
Colon taenia coli
defecation
What structure is the arrow on? What does it function in?
appendix
What structure? Not a peyer patch but has lots of lymphocytes.
Rectum
Anus
Note the transition from simply columnar to stratified squamous. What junction is this?
hemorrhoids
What is the diagnosis?