107 terms

Jeffrey psychology: conditioning

source: Wikipedia Abbreviations are used according to the list presented on the website of the American Psychological Association.
STUDY
PLAY
Interstimulus interval (ISI)
Length of time between presentation of the stimulus and recall.
Interstimulus interval(ISI)
Length of time between presentation of the stimulus and recall.
classical conditioning, neural structures, mechanisms, leaning and memory
Eyeblink is a form of ..... that has been used extensively to study ...... and mechanisms that underlie ........
conditioned stimulus(bell)
CS stands for(+example):
unconditioned stimulus(food)
UCS stands for(+example):
Ivan Pavlov
Classical conditioning inventor:
Neutral stimulus(bell)
NS stands for(+example):
Unconditioned response(drooling after food)
UCR(+ example):
Unconditioned response
A unconditioned stimulus causes an ....
unconditioned stimulus.
An Unconditioned response is caused by a ...
Neutral stimulus.
A stimulus that not invokes a response.
conditioned stimulus(bell)
CS stands for(+example)
CS
After classical conditioning a NS will be turned into a ...
NS, UCS, CS, CS, CR.
classic conditioning: If the ........ is presented along with ......., it would become a ........ . Now the NS and NR wil be called the .... and ......
classical conditioning, neural structures and mechanisms, learning, memory.
Eyeblink conditioning is a form of ..... that has been used extensively to study ............ that underlie ...... and ........
Eyeblink conditioning.
EBC stands for:
Delay conditioning, trace conditioning
Two common forms of forward conditioning are:
forward conditioning
Wich type of conditioning is fastest:
Forward conditioning.
Wich type of conditioning is fastest:
forward conditioning
Type of conditioning: The CS precedes the onset of the UCS.
Delay conditioning, Trace conditioning
2 types of of forward conditioning:
Delay conditioning.
Type of conditioning: The CS is presented and is overlapped by the presentation of the UCS.
Trace conditioning
Type of conditioning: CS is presented, a period of time is allowed to elapse during which no stimuli are presented, and then the UCS is presented.
Simultaneous conditioning
Type of conditioning: The CS and UCS are presented and terminated at the same time.
Backward conditioning.
Type of conditioning: CS immediately after an UCS.
Temporal conditioning
Type of conditioning: The UCS is presented at regularly timed intervals, and CR acquisition is dependent upon correct timing of the interval between UCS presentations.
Unpaired conditioning
Type of conditioning: The CS and UCS are not presented together. Usually they are presented as independent trials that are separated by a variable, or pseudo-random, interval.
non-associative behavioral responses.
Unpaired conditioning is used to study:
non-associative
Sensitization is an example of ..... behavioral responses.
non-associative learning, amplification, response, stimulus.
Sensitization is an example of ....... in which the progressive............. of a ...... follows repeated administration of a ......
CS alone extinction
The CS is presented in the absence of the UCS. This procedure is usually done after the CR has been acquired through "forward conditioning" training.
Acquisition stage.
The time during which a CR first appears and when it increases in frequency is known as the
Generalization
subjects that show the conditioned response not just to the original conditioned stimulus but also to new stimuli that resemble that stimulus are displaying what is called generalization.
Discrimination.
When any life form can be taught to differentiate between very alike, but different stimuli.
spontaneous recovery
The conditioned reflex can be partially renewed after a certain time period has passed, a phenomenon known as:
Latent inhibition conditioning
In this procedure, a CS is presented several times before paired CS-UCS training commences. The pre-exposure of the subject to the CS before paired training slows the rate of CR acquisition relative to organisms that are not CS pre-exposed.
Latent inhibition
ignore an ongoing sound (like an air conditioner) or tune out the conversation of others is wich type of conditioning?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_conditioning
Conditioned inhibition conditioning (IS NIKS)
CS1, UCS, CS1+CS2, UCS, blocked, CS2
Blocking is a form of classical conditioning
Phase 1: A ....... is paired with a .......
Phase 2: A compound .... is paired with a ......
Test: A separate test for each CS (CS1 and CS2) is performed. The blocking effect is observed in a lack of conditioned response to CS2, suggesting that the first phase of training ..... the acquisition of ......
learning, occurrence, form, consequences.
Operant conditioning is a form of ...... during which an individual modifies the ...... and ...... of its own behavior due to the ...... of the behavior.
aversion therapy, flooding and systematic desensitization.
Therapies associated with classical conditioning are:
the patient is exposed to a stimulus while simultaneously being subjected to some form of discomfort.
Aversion therapy
is used to treat phobia and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder.
Flooding.
systematic desensitization
One must first be taught relaxation skills in order to extinguish fear and anxiety responses to specific phobias. Once the individual has been taught these skills, he or she must use them to react towards and overcome situations in an established hierarchy of fears. The goal of this process is that an individual will learn to cope and overcome the fear in each step of the hierarchy, which will lead to overcoming the last step of the fear in the hierarchy
prolonged exposure therapy, exposure therapy.
Flooding also called:
neutral stimulus, erotic film
Sexual arousal can actually be conditioned in human subjects by pairing a ........ like a picture of a jar of pennies with an unconditioned stimulus like an .......
.Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, negative punishment
Four types of operand conditioning are:
Positive reinforcement
Occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a stimulus that is appetitive or rewarding, increasing the frequency of that behavior.
Negative reinforcement
occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus, thereby increasing that behavior's frequency.
Positive punishment
Occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a stimulus, such as introducing a shock or loud noise, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
Negative punishment.
Occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of a stimulus, such as taking away a child's toy following an undesired behavior, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
Positive punishment.
Hitting a child is of which operant conditioning type?
Negative punishment.
Taking a way a toy is of which operant conditioning type?
Positive reinforcement
Giving a child a treat for good behaviour is of which operant conditioning type?
Negative reinforcement
Taking away an electric fence so a child can pet the horses is of which operant conditioning type?
Aversives
Unpleasant stimuli that induce changes in behavior through punishment are called?
State Goal, Monitor Behavior, Reinforce desired behavior, Reduce incentives to perform undesirable behavior.
4 steps with operant condittioning to change human behaviour:
Avoidance learning
Which type of learning is this?: performing the behavior of shielding one's eyes when in the sunlight (or going outdoors) will help avoid the aversive stimulation of having light in one's eyes.
Extinction
What is this called?: In the Skinner box experiment, this is the rat pushing the lever and being rewarded with a food pellet several times, and then pushing the lever again and never receiving a food pellet again. Eventually the rat would cease pushing the lever.
Shaping
This a form of operant conditioning in which the increasingly accurate approximations of a desired response are reinforced
Chaining
is an instructional procedure which involves reinforcing individual responses occurring in a sequence to form a complex behavior.
Respons cost.
This is a form of punishment in which the annihilation of an appetitive stimulus always follows the reducing in the occurrence of a response
instrumental conditioning, instrumental learning
Operant conditioning sometimes called? (2 answers)
Edward L. Thorndike
instrumental conditioning was first extensively studied by?
Edward L. Thorndike
instrumental learning, was first extensively studied by ?
B.F. Skinner
This psychologist formulated a more detailed analysis of operant conditioning based on reinforcement, punishment, and extinction
Ernst Mach, mediating structures, "satisfaction", conceptualization.
Following the ideas of .........., Skinner rejected Thorndike's mediating structures required by .... and constructed a new ....... of behavior without any such references.
feeding mechanisms, operant conditioning chambe, rate of response, dependent, lever presses
While experimenting with some homemade .........., Skinner invented the ....... which allowed him to measure ....... as a key ....... variable using a cumulative record of ...... or key pecks.
Learned helplessness
Means a condition of a human person or an animal in which it has learned to behave helplessly, even when the opportunity is restored for it to help itself by avoiding an unpleasant or harmful circumstance to which it has been subjected.
learned, helplessly, restored, avoiding, unpleasant, harmful
Learned helplessness means a condition of a human or an animal in which it has ......... to behave ......., even when the opportunity is ...... for it to help itself by ...... an .......or .......circumstance to which it has been subjected.
American, martin Seligman, experiments, theory, University of Pennsylvania 1967, depression
The (nationality) psychologist (name) began foundational .... and .... of learned helplessness began at (school) in (year), as an extension of his interest in depression.
Seligman, conditioning, dogs, B.F. Skinner's
Quite by accident, ..... and colleagues discovered that the ...... of dogs led to outcomes that opposed the predictions of ..... behaviorism, then a leading psychological theory.
3, dogs, realeased, pain, pressing a lever, intensity and duration, did not, recovered, helpless, depression
Learned helplessness experiment Part 1: Seligman and Steve Maier's experimentend on ...... groups of ....... They were placed in harnesses. Group 1 dogs were simply put in the harnesses for a period of time and later ...... Groups 2 and 3 consisted of "yoked pairs." A dog in Group 2 would be intentionally subjected to ..... by being given electric shocks, which the dog could end by ....... A Group 3 dog was wired in parallel with a Group 2 dog, receiving shocks of identical ......., but his lever ..(did/did not).. stop the electric shocks. To a dog in Group 3, it seemed that the shock ended at random, because it was his paired dog in Group 2 that was causing it to stop. For Group 3 dogs, the shock was apparently "inescapable." Group 1 and Group 2 dogs quickly ...... from the experience, but Group 3 dogs learned to be ....., and exhibited symptoms similar to chronic clinical .....
3, dogs, realeased, pain, pressing a lever, intensity and duration, did not, recovered, helpless, depression
Learned helplessness experiment Part 1: Seligman and Steve Maier's experimentend on ...... groups of ....... They were placed in harnesses. Group 1 dogs were simply put in the harnesses for a period of time and later ...... Groups 2 and 3 consisted of "yoked pairs." A dog in Group 2 would be intentionally subjected to ..... by being given electric shocks, which the dog could end by ....... A Group 3 dog was wired in parallel with a Group 2 dog, receiving shocks of identical ......., but his lever ..(did/did not).. stop the electric shocks. To a dog in Group 3, it seemed that the shock ended at random, because it was his paired dog in Group 2 that was causing it to stop. For Group 3 dogs, the shock was apparently "inescapable." Group 1 and Group 2 dogs quickly ...... from the experience, but Group 3 dogs learned to be ....., and exhibited symptoms similar to chronic clinical .....
3, escape, jumping, learned, lay down, whined.
Learned helplessness experiment Part 2: I
n Part 2 of the Seligman and Maier experiment, these ..... groups of dogs were tested in a shuttle-box apparatus, in which the dogs could ..... electric shocks by ..... over a low partition. For the most part, the Group 3 dogs, who had previously ..... that nothing they did had any effect on the shocks, simply .... passively and ..... Even though they could have easily escaped the shocks, the dogs didn't try.
3, escape, jumping, learned, lay down, whined.
Learned helplessness experiment Part 2: I
n Part 2 of the Seligman and Maier experiment, these ..... groups of dogs were tested in a shuttle-box apparatus, in which the dogs could ..... electric shocks by ..... over a low partition. For the most part, the Group 3 dogs, who had previously ..... that nothing they did had any effect on the shocks, simply .... passively and ..... Even though they could have easily escaped the shocks, the dogs didn't try.
learned, struggling, shocks, behaviour, paralyzing drug, Part 1, same
In a second experiment later that year, Overmier and Seligman ruled out the possibility that the Group 3 dogs .... some behavior in Part 1 of the experiment, while they were ..... in the harnesses against the "inescapable .....," that somehow interfered with what would have been their normal, successful ..... of escaping from the shocks in Part 2. The Group 3 dogs were immobilized with a ...... (Curare), and underwent a procedure similar to that in .... of the Seligman and Maier experiment. A similar Part 2 in the shuttle-box was also undertaken in this experiment, and the Group 3 dogs exhibited the ..... "helpless" response.
learned, struggling, shocks, behavior, paralyzing drug, Part 1, same
In a second experiment later that year, Overmier and Seligman ruled out the possibility that the Group 3 dogs .... some behavior in Part 1 of the experiment, while they were ..... in the harnesses against the "inescapable .....," that somehow interfered with what would have been their normal, successful ..... of escaping from the shocks in Part 2. The Group 3 dogs were immobilized with a ...... (Curare), and underwent a procedure similar to that in .... of the Seligman and Maier experiment. A similar Part 2 in the shuttle-box was also undertaken in this experiment, and the Group 3 dogs exhibited the ..... "helpless" response.
helpless, 150, one-third, out, unpleasant, optimism
However, not all of the dogs in Seligman's experiments became helpless. Of the roughly ... dogs in experiments in the latter half of the, about .... did not become helpless, but instead managed to find a way ... of the .... situation despite their past experience with it. The corresponding characteristic in humans has been found to correlate highly with ..... .
human babies, head, control, movement, mobile, control the mobile, mobile, learned
Conditioning experiment: presented by Watson & Ramey (1969), consisted of two groups of human babies. One group of...... was placed into a crib with a sensory pillow, designed so that the movement of the baby's ..... could control the rotation of a mobile. The other group had no ..... over the ....... of the ......... and could only enjoy looking at it. Later, both groups of babies were tested in cribs that allowed the babies to ............. Although all the babies now had the power to control the ........, only the group that had already ....... about the sensory pillow attempted to use it.
Watson, Ramey, 1969, human babies, baby's, control, movement, mobile, cribs, mobile, mobile, learned, sensory pillow
Conditioning experiment: presented by ........ & ....... (......), consisted of two groups of human babies. One group of...... was placed into a crib with a sensory pillow, designed so that the movement of the .... head could control the rotation of a mobile. The other group had no ..... over the ....... of the ......... and could only enjoy looking at it. Later, both groups of babies were tested in .... that allowed the babies to control the ..... Although all the babies now had the power to control the ....., only the group that had already .... about the ........ attempted to use it.
helplessness, reactions, situation, generalizes
Later research discovered that the original theory of learned ..... failed to account for people's varying .... to situations that can cause learned helplessness.[6] Learned helplessness sometimes remains specific to one .....,[7] but at other times ...... across situations.
attributional, explanatory, adverse
An individual's ..... style or ..... style was the key to understanding why people responded differently to ..... events.
A unconditioned response is envoked by a:
Unconditioned stimulus.
experimental, emotional, response, experiments
In ..........psychology, there are multiple measures of conditioned ........ response used by researchers as the measure of conditioned emotional ....... in a subject in classical conditioning ..........
Movement ratio, Suppression ratio
2 measures of conditioned emotional response used by researchers are:
time, presentation, stimulus, behaviour
The movement ratio is the proportion of .... during the .......of a conditioned ....... that the subject is displaying elicited ....... .
MR =Tb/Tt, Movement Ratio, Time displaying the elicited behavior, Total time of CS presentation
Movement ratio is defined as ....... Where MR.......... ........, Tb.........Time displaying the elicited behavior and Tt is .....
response rate, conditioned stimulus, sum, response rate, conditioned stimulus,
The suppression ratio is equal to the ......... during a ....... presentation divided by the ...... of response rate during the .......... plus the ........... in the period immediately preceding the ............. In other terms:
SR=D/(D+B), Suppression Ratio, Responding (D)uring CS, Responding (B)efore CS
The formula for the suppression ratio is:
Where SR = ......, D = ....... and B = .......
Bell after conditioning.
Example CS.
Bell before conditioning.
Example NS.
Drooling when food presented.
Example UCR:
Drooling when bell is presented.
Example CR.
Classical conditioning.
second-order conditioning or higher-order conditioning is which type of conditioning?
Learning, meaningful or consequential, stimulus, learning, new
In classical conditioning, second-order conditioning or higher-order conditioning is a form of .... in which a stimulus is first made ....... for an organism through an initial step of learning, and then that ...... is used as a basis for ... about some ... stimulus.
higher-order conditioning
Other name for second-order conditioning:
first-order conditioning, second-order conditioning,
An animal might first learn to associate a bell with food. This is which order of conditioning?
After that it learns to associate a light with the bell . Which order of conditioning is this?
Proboscis extension reflex
When a bee extends her proboscis (sticks out her tongue) as a reflex to antennal stimulation. It is evoked when a sugar solution is touched to a bee's antenna this is called?
Shaping
As training progresses the trainer stops reinforcing the less accurate approximations.
dimension, behaviour, rate, duration, magnitude, latency, stimulus
Reinforcement is a term in operant conditioning and behavior analysis for a process of strengthening a directly measurable ....... of .....--such as ..... (e.g., pulling a lever more frequently), .... (e.g., pulling a lever for longer periods of time), ...... (e.g., pulling a lever with greater force), or .......(e.g., pulling a lever more quickly following the onset of an environmental event)--as a function of the delivery of a "valued" ....... (e.g. money from a slot machine) immediately or shortly after the occurrence of the behavior.
behaviour rate
Slot machine conditioning experiment:
When you record the frequency at which a test subject pulls a lever you are measuring the .............?
duration
When you record the periods of time pulling that a test subject pulls a lever you are measuring the ............?
magnitude
When you record the force at which the test subjects pull a lever you are measuring the ..........?
latency
When you record the time between the pulling of a lever and the onset of an environmental event you are measuring the .........?
Law of effect
A basic law of learning that states that the power of a stimulus to evoke a response is strengthened when the response is followed by a reward and weakened when it is not followed by a reward.
strengthened, reward, weakened, reward
Law of effect states that the power of a stimulus to evoke a response is ............. when the response is followed by a ............... and .................. when it is not followed by a ......