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Terms in this set (20)
A collective set of reactions by which the cell converts or fixes inorganic carbon from carbon dioxide into organic carbon
Cyclic Electron Flow
A process by which electrons leaving photosystem I are passed back to the cytochrome complex and re-enter photosystem I; generates ATP but not NADPH
A calvin cycle product; one of the building blocks for carbohydrates
Linear Electron Flow
He process by which electrons leaving photosystem II are transferred through electron carriers to photosystem I and ultimately to NADP⁺ to form NADPH
The process by which ADP is phosphorylated into ATP using the energy from sunlight
A collection of pigment-protein complexes organized to harvest light energy
A photosystem with an absorption peak at 700 nm; occurs after photosystem II in the photosynthetic electron transport chain
A photosystem with an absorption peak at 680 nm; first of the two photosystems in the photosynthetic electron transport chain
Primary Electron Acceptor
A modified chlorophyll a molecule that accepts the high energy electrons at the center of photosstem II
Ribulose Biphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase
An enzyme that binds a carbon dioxide molecule to ribulose-1, 5-biphophate as it eneters the calvin cycle; the most abundant enzyme on earth
The area in the chloroplast outside the thylakoids; site of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis
A continuous membrane inside the chloroplast containing photosynthetic pigments and the proteins involved in the light-dependent reactions of photsynthesis
Describe the source of the energy that is released in the redox reactions of an electron transport chain
Redox reactions release potential energy of electrons. Electrons have potential energy due to their position compared to the nucleus. The positively charged nucleus attracts negatively charged electrons. Therefore, energy is required to move electrons away from the nucleus. The farther an electron is from a nucleus, the more potential energy it has. Exergonic redox reactions release some of this potential energy by moving electrons to atoms in which they are positioned closer to the nuclei.
Explain the importance of the water-splitting reaction.
Splitting water separates charges, providing electrons for the transport chain and H+ ions for chemiosmosis.
One possible selective advantage of photorespiration could be that it allows plants to release absorbed light energy in the absence of which of the following substances?
Following the entry of carbon dioxide through the stomata, trace the path of carbon dioxide in a C 4 plant by placing these steps in the correct order.
1.Oxaloacetate is converted into malate.
2.Malate is broken down into pyruvate and carbon dioxide.
3.Carbon dioxide enters the Calvin cycle.
4.Malate is transported to the bundle-sheath cells.
5.The compound oxaloacetate is formed.
6.Carbon dioxide reacts with phosphoenolpyruvate.
6, 5, 1, 4, 2, 3
In a C 4 plant, what is the first molecule that carbon dioxide reacts with?
Why is it advantageous for the Calvin cycle to occur in bundle sheath cells in C 4 plants?
CO 2 levels are high in bundle sheath cells.
Which of the following statements are true? I. During photorespiration, nitrogen competes with carbon dioxide as a substrate for RuBisCO. II. Photorespiration uses energy. III. In photorespiration, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate is converted to one molecule of 3-phosphogylcerate and one molecule of 2-phosphoglycolate. IV. Photorespiration may not have had a large impact on plants when atmospheric oxygen levels were lower.
II, III, and IV only
Which of the following statements is false about C 4 plants?
The leaves of C 4 plants have less prominent bundle sheath cells than the leaves of C 3 plants.
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