Exploring Creation with Biology Mrs. Hall's Study Notes Module 7

the passing of traits from parents to offspring. Examples: eye color, skin tone, hair color
Larmarkian/ Biologist
scientist who believed that the activities of parents determined the characteristics of their children.
a distinguishing quality or characteristic
the science that studies how traits are passed from parents to offspring
Gregor Mendel
A monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884)
stores information responsible for genetics
Different characteristics result when what happens?
When there are DNA codes for different proteins
genetic tendency
the range of possible characteristics set by the DNA. i.e. obese, thin, diabetic
What are some traits that are determined by your genetics and activity has little or no effect?
hair color, eye color, skin tone (not an exhaustive list)
What are the 3 factors that work together to determine the overall characteristics of a person?
genetic factors, environmental factors, spiritual factors
genetic factors
determined by DNA
environmental factors
"non-biological" factors such as parents, friends, and other personal choices
spiritual factors
a persons relationship with God
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
Every cell in your body contains a set of?
How do different cells in different body parts function differently?
we don't exactly know. we only know that only certainj genes (parts of DNA) are active in certain cells
What is the 2 part process of protein synthesis?
transcription, and translation
What is the cell dependent on to complete it's task?
The proteins that it produces
How does a cell know what to produce?
What is another necessary molecule in protein production?
RNA/ribonucleic acid
What makes up the foundation of RNA that is double-stranded?
What are the four nucleotide bases of RNA?
adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil
What happens to DNA because of deoxyribose and thymine?
DNA is much more chemically stable than RNA
Protein synthesis occurs where?
How do instructions get to the ribosomes?
a special types of the RNA "takes a snapshop" of the necessary segment of the RNA.
What is the job of the messenger RNA?
to produce a "negative" of the DNA
Where are the instructions of the protein synthesis that the DNA provides?
the first stage of protein synthesis, the formation of a negative image of a DNA strand by RNA
Where does that process of transciption occur?
Why does the portion of DNA that is copied "unwind"?
so that the individual strand of DNA is accessible.
Why do the nucleotides of MRNA line up with corresponding bases on the DNA?
to produce a strand of RNA
Where does the MRNA strand go once it leaves the nucleus?
the ribosome
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
RNA that performs transcription
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
RNA that functions in translation
a 3 nucleotide sequence on RNA
a sequence of 3 nucleotide bases on MRNA that refers to a specific amino acids
What is tRNA bounded to?
an amino acid
What is the 2nd stage of protein synthesis?
portions of DNA sequence that are actually instructions for protein synthesis
sequences of nucleotide bases that separate the exons like "spacers" on a bookshelf
What is processed before it reaches the ribosomes so that introns are removed and exons are sliced together leaving only the instructions for protein synthesis?
What is the purpose of introns?
we don't know for sure
certain proteins in the nucleus of a cell which act as spools winding up small stitches of DNA
What is eukaryotic asexual reproduction?
in the nucleus, a strand of DNA coiled around and supported by histones (look at fig 7.4 pg 205)
one amino acid can call for how many codons?
one codon can call for how many amino acids?
a collection of all chromosomes in the nucleus
a duplication and distribution of a cell's chromosomes to allow daughter cells to receive the same exact genetic make up as the parent cell. asexual reproduction.
What is often refered to as "celluar division"?
mitosis, since it results in two identical cells from one cell.
the time interval between cellular divisions; the "resting" phase
What two things happen when it's time for a cell to begin mitosis?
The chromosomes coil up tightly and duplicate, and the centriole duplicates itself.
The original chromosome and the copy are attached to what?
the centromere
constricted region of a chromosome and the point at which duplicate DNA strands attach to each other.
mother cell
a cell containing duplicate DNA and centriols which are ready to begin reproduction.