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AWH Chapter 3 Book Questions, Section Summaries, and Guided Reading
Terms in this set (56)
What happened to the Indo-Europeans?
They migrated to different areas.
How did the Hittites react to the culture they found in Mesopotamia?
They adopted things from the Mesopotamian culture like laws, art, and literature.
What is the caste system?
The Aryans' social class system was called a caste system: first priests, then warriors, then merchants or landowners, and finally peasants and traders.
How did environmental features in Anatolia help the Hittites advance technologically?
The mountains surrounding Anatolia contained iron and wood, allowing them to make things out of iron and use charcoal.
How were the more physical forms of work viewed by Aryans?
Physical forms of work including things like butchering, grave digging, and collecting trash.
What were some of the technological achievements of the Hittites?
The Hittites created two wheeled chariots made of iron. They also had iron in weapons and tools, making them stronger.
What were some of the borrowings of the Hittites?
The Hittites borrowed the Babylonian language, Akkadian, and things like laws and literature from Mesopotamia.
Where do some historians think the Aryans lived before they arrived in India?
People think Aryans came from between the Caspian and Aral seas, or they originated in India.
What are three reasons that historians give to explain why Indo-Europeans migrated?
Indo-Europeans might have migrated because the animals might have become scarce, invaders could be coming, or the soil could wear out.
How were the Aryans different from the non-Aryans (dasas) that they encountered when migrating to India?
The Aryans had lighter skin, were taller, spoke a different language, were pastoral, and counted wealth in cows. The dasas were town dwellers and lived in communities protected by walls.
Name three Hindu beliefs.
They believed in reincarnation, that karma affected the status of your next life, and that everybody has an atman (soul).
Name four basic beliefs of Buddhism.
You can reach enlightenment through the eightfold path, you are reincarnated until you reach nirvana, nirvana is release from selfishness and pain, to reach this you should separate self from attachment to worldly things.
How might the lack of a single founder result in Hinduism changing more over time than other religions?
Without a single founder, there isn't one single uniform idea from that founder, causing different ideas to develop because this lack of certainty.
How far might the Jain respect for life extend?
The Jain wear masks and sweep bugs out of the way. They also have to work in places that don't kill any living thing.
In what ways are Buddhism and Hinduism similar? In what ways are they different?
Buddhism and Hinduism both believe in reincarnation, and the end of it once you reach a certain state. However, Hinduism believes that karma affects your next life and the caste you are in, while Buddhism doesn't believe in the caste system. They both believe in a perfect state of understanding, for Buddhism nirvana and Hinduism moksha. Buddhism has one single founder, Siddhartha Gautama, but Hinduism doesn't have one single founder.
What are the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism?
Life is filled with suffering and sorrow.
The cause of all suffering is people's selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world.
The way to end all suffering is to end all desires.
The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle Way between desires and self-denial.
How has Hinduism influenced social structure in India?
Hinduism caused more emphasis on the importance of the caste system. In Hinduism, it is believed that what you do in your previous life will affect what caste you are in or your wealth.
How did Buddhism spread?
Buddhism spread through trade through things like the Silk Roads to China, and from there to most of East Asia.
How are the Vedas and the Upanishads similar?
The Vedas is the sacred literature of Hinduism, while the Upanishads are the interpretations and hidden meanings of the Vedas.
What are the terms of enlightenment for Buddhism? What are the terms of enlightenment for Hinduism?
To achieve enlightenment for Buddhism, you must follow the Eightfold Path. To achieve enlightenment for Hinduism, you must have complete understanding of the relationship between atman and Brahman.
In Hinduism, how are the ideas of karma, reincarnation, and moksha connected?
Moksha is perfect understanding of the relationship between atman and Brahman, and until a person reaches this, they are continuously reincarnated. It is believed that karma, or the good or bad deeds of a person in the previous life affects their status and wealth in the next.
Why were lower castes more likely to convert to Buddhism?
The Buddhists don't believe in the caste system and social status, meaning some lower class people would want to convert to be equal to everyone.
What were three important features of Minoan culture?
They had fine pottery, little war or invaders, and women had a high role in society.
How did Phoenicians spread their culture?
Phoenicians spread their culture through their trade routes all over the Middle East.
Why were trade networks so important?
Trade helped people exchange information, products, and culture. Art, religion, etc. was spread through trade.
What did the excavations at Knossos reveal about Minoan culture?
The excavations revealed the Minoan culture was very advanced and thriving. They found wall paintings and vases showing them as athletic people who loved nature and beautiful objects. They enjoyed boxing, wrestling, and bull leaping. Artwork also depicted women as priestesses with higher ranks in society than most other cultures. They was a great Mother Earth Goddess who ruled over Crete. They also found animal sacrifices and one young boy sacrifice on an altar.
Where did the Phoenicians settle and trade?
Phoenicians settled in Lebanon and created many different city-states including Carthage, a main trade center.
Why did the Phoenicians develop a writing system?
The Phoenicians developed a writing system to record trade transactions quickly and clearly.
What might have caused the collapse of Minoan culture?
The Minoan culture might have collapsed because of natural disasters or invaders taking advantage of the weak city after a large earthquake.
What were some similarities between the Minoans and Phoenicians in terms of trade?
Both the Minoans and Phoenicians traded their amazing crafts, like pottery, metal, and figurines.
How were the economic foundations of Minoans and Phoenician civilizations similar?
Both the Minoans and Phoenicians had strong trade routes and were able to base their economy off of trade.
What did the Minoans export?
The Minoans exported goods like pottery, figurines, swords, and precious metals. They also exported their art and culture, like architecture, burial customs, and religious rituals.
What is Phoenicia's greatest legacy to the world?
The Phoenicians created the basis of our alphabet to this day.
What sacred writings describe the early history of the Hebrews?
The Torah and the Old Testament in the Bible.
How were the Hebrews treated in Egypt?
The Hebrews were put into slavery.
Why is Moses an important figure in Jewish history?
Moses helped the Hebrews escape from Egypt and gave them the 10 commandments.
What were the achievements of Saul and David?
Saul drove out Philistines and David united the tribes, established Jerusalem as a capital, and started a dynasty.
Why did King Solomon build a great temple in Jerusalem?
King Solomon built the temple to glorify god.
What were the reasons for the division?
The Jews revolted because King Solomon's rich building caused for excessive taxing and work for the men.
Who was Nebuchadnezzar?
He was a Babylonian King who took Egyptians out of Syria and Judah. He attacked Jerusalem twice.
What ruler allowed the Hebrews to return to Jerusalem?
Cyrus the Great.
What role did Abraham play in early Hebrew history?
He was the first Hebrew and led his family to the Promised Land to begin the religion.
What were the Ten Commandments?
The Ten Commandments were life laws given to Moses from God on Mount Sinai.
How was Israel split?
Israel split when Jews revolted because of excessive taxing and work. It split into Judah and Israel.
What was the Babylonian Captivity?
Babylonians took over Israel and Judah and forced Jews into exile.
How did the religion of the Israelites differ from many of the religions of their neighbors?
The Israelites believed in only one god, compared to others who believed in many.
What does Jewish law require of believers?
Jewish law requires believers to worship God and live justly with one another. The emphasis on right conduct and the worship of one God is called ethical monotheism.
Where did Abraham and his family originally come from?
Abraham and his family originally came from the city of Ur in Mesopotamia.
What were some of the achievements of Solomon?
Solomon created a huge trading center in Israel and a large temple to worship.
What were the main problems faced by the Israelites between 1800 B.C. and 700 B.C.?
The Israelites were put in slavery, spent 40 years in the desert, were taxed and overworked, and exiled by the Babylonians.
What were some of the factors that made Canaan a good place for the Israelites to settle?
Canaan had two major sea ports and lay between two large empires.
In what ways are the laws delivered to Moses similar to Hammurabi's Code?
The laws were delivered to Moses by God similar to Hammurabi giving them to his people. Both form of laws are still used today.
What is ethical monotheism and why is it important?
Ethical monotheism is the emphasis on right conduct and the worship of God.
What were some of the achievements of David?
David united the tribes, established Jerusalem as the capital, and founded a dynasty.
What were some of the effects of King Solomon's reign?
King Solomon overworked the men and forced a lot of taxes because of his rich building, causing a revolt by the Jews.
Why was monotheism unusual in its time and place?
Monotheism only worshiped one god which was different because most other religions worshiped many different gods for different things.
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