History Ch. 16 People and Terms

All the terms and "identify" questions are on here, but you will have to look at the "chapter concepts" questions on yours on because I could find no way to put all that info on here. Rebecca Graeter
Nicolaus Copernicus
Polish astronomer who said the solar system was heliocentric
stated that the earth and the planets revolved around the sun
stated that the earth was the center of the universe
Johannes Kepler
German Lutheran astronomer that discovered the 3 laws of planetary motion
1. Planets orbit the sun in ellipses (oval-shaped paths).
2. A planet moves faster when it is closer to the sun
3. There is a relationship between the time it takes a planet to orbit the sun and its distance from the sun.
laws of planetary motion
Galileo Galilei
discovered the law of uniform acceleration and the laws of pendulum
law of uniform acceleration
the speed of any body in a vacuum, regardless of weight, accelerates uniformly with time
laws of pendulum
explain the relationship between the time it takes a freely swinging mass to travel in its arc and the distance between the mass and its connecting point
Isaac Newton
discovered the universal law of gravitation; he is the "Father of Modern Science"
Francis Bacon
formulated the modern scientific method
William Harvey
English physician who discovered the circulation of blood in the human body
Rene Descartes
"Father of Modern Philosophy"; developed analytical geometry
Blaise Pascal
French mathmetician and philosopher who invented the first calculating device; perfected the barometer; developed the science of hydrostatics
Robert Boyle
"Father of Modern Chemistry"
Robert Hooke
first to observe microscopic cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
"Father of Microbiology"; made microscopes; observed protozoa and anatomical functions
Gabriel Fahrenheit
invented the mercury thermometer and developed a temperature scale
Martin Luther
brought the Bible to the people; wrote hymns to put music in church services
Johann Sebastian Bach
became one of history's greatest composers
George Frederick Handel
wrote oratorios, like his most loved: The Messiah
Isaac Watts
"Father of the English Hymn"
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
child prodigy; composed over 600 works
Ludwig van Beethoven
Deaf; his works sparked the climax of the 19th century; wrote concertos and piano sonatas; his greatest works were his orchestral symphonies
Rembrandt van Rijn
the greatest of the Dutch art masters; one of the greatest painters of all times
a work of superior excellence that has stood the test of time --- a work for all people and all ages (also be able to name several classics)
What is a classic?
Hymns known as chorales
What were Luther's most original and lasting musical achievements?
The Christmas Oratorio, St. Matthew Passion, The Well-Tempered Clavier, Brandenburg Concertos
4 works by Bach:
The Hallelujah Chorus (in The Messiah)
best known choral piece in the world:
"When I Survey the Wondrous Cross"; "Joy to the World"; "O God Our Help in Ages Past"; "Alas, and Did My Savior Bleed"
4 hymns written by Watts:
Surprise Symphony, The Creation, The Seasons
3 works by Haydn:
Moonlight Sonata, Fifth Symphony, Ninth Symphony
3 works by Beethoven: