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the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating


a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people


a mental image or best example of a category.


a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. contrasts with the usually speederheuristics


a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but more error prone


a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy based solutions

confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions


the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; and impediment to problem solving

mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past but my or may not be helpful in solving a new problem

functional fixedness

tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving

representative heuristic

judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their avaiability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common


the tendency to be more confident thatn correct, to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments


the way an issue is posed, how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements

belief bias

the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasong, somethimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid

belief perserverance

clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

artificial intelligence

the science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human though processes, sucha s intuitive reasoning, learning, and understanding language

computer neural networks

computer circuits that mimic the brain's interonnected neural cells, performing tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells


our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning


in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit


in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word(like a prefix)


in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others


the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, sorks, and sentences in a given langauge; also the study of meaning


the rules for combinging words into grammatically semsivle sentences in a given language

babbling stage

beginning at 3 to 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

one word stage

stage from 1 to 2 years old during which a child speaks mostly in single words

two word stage

beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two word statements

telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram using mostly nouns and vers and omitting auxiliary words

linguistic determinism

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think

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