Upgrade to remove ads
PT 434 Bone Histology & Disease
Terms in this set (63)
Explain the properties of bone
-rigid and static
-elastic and dynamic with secretory and regulatory functions
What percent of calcium is stored in bone?
99%; that's why bone tissue is essential to the maintenance of calcium homeostasis
What is bone tissue composed of?
-tiny crystals of calcium and phosphorus embedded in framework of interlocking collagen
What gives bones their compressional strength, hardness, and rigidity
What gives bone its relative capacity for flexibility and tensile strength?
What are the 3 types of bone cells and what do they do?
-osteoblasts: create bony tissue
-osteocytes: osteoblasts trapped in own matrix
-osteoclasts: break down bony tissue to release Ca
What are the two different types of bone?
-sold and dense in appearance
-diaphysis of long bones and outside of vertebral bodies
-more porous and looks like a honeycomb
-end of long bones and within vertebral bodies
True or False: All bones are composed of interior trabecular bone surround by cortical bone
What type of bone are vertebrae typically composed of?
-mostly trabecular bone surrounded by thin cortical bone
What type of bone are long bones composed of?
-mostly cortical bone with areas of trabecular bone concentrated at the ends of each bone
Because of loss of bone mass, compression fractures are common in what areas?
-distal end of radius
-proximal end of femur
What type of bone is most affected by a loss of bone mass?
Which type of bone is able to absorb higher amounts of compression force?
Skeletal mass is ___% cortical bone and _____% trabecular bone
What are bone's 4 main functions?
-allows for mobility via joints
-resists mechanical stresses
-maintain Ca homeostasis
-bone marrow is a storage and production center for blood and immune system components
long tubular shaft
the area that flares out
What 3 things comprise long bones?
What are cartilagenous structures between epiphysis and metaphysis?
***seen in children
What bones are involved in hematopoiesis?
bones transform/deform according to stress placed upon them
-when there is motion in healing so that chondrocytes move to site of fracture to lay down cartilage instead of osteoblasts moving to site to lay down bony tissue
What hormones effect bone?
-parathormone (release Ca from bone)
-calcitonin (bone uptakes Ca)
What can pseudoarthrosis cause and where is the most common site?
Biomechanical energy in the line of stress
Why does weight bearing produce a positive electrical energy?
-conversion of mechanical energy-electrical energy
-deformation produces electrical potential as a result of electrolyte flow
Why is exterior bracing with screws rarely used?
-inconvenience with dressing/wound care
What is the optimal stimulus for bone repair?
-modified compression and decompression
What are the symptoms of bone and joint disease?
At what age do you have maximal bone mass
(she said 25-30 in lecture)
reduction in bone mass mineralization/level of Ca the bone possesses to 2.5 SD normal for age 30
What are the causes of osteoporosis?
-loss of weight bearing/bed rest
-hyperparathyroidism, hyperthryoidism, chronic renal failure
How do wedge fractures of the spine correlate with kyphosis?
-they increase it
What is the most common metabolic bone disease?
***10 million people in the US have it
Demographics of osteoporosis
-females (bc loss of natural estrogen from menopause)
-thin (bc estrogen stored in fat cells)
Explain the pathogenesis for osteoporosis
-combo of increased bone reabsorption and decreased bone formation
-imbalance between osteoclastic and osteoblastic function
-greatest effect on trabecular bone (vertebrae and metaphysis of long bones)
What are the common risk factors for osteoporosis?
most potent form of naturally occurring estrogen
progestation hormone which prepares the uterus for fertilized eggs
What are the two types of osteoporosis
What is primary osteoporosis
-disease process typically associated with aging
-just women typically
What is secondary osteoporosis?
-disease process that occurs because of another pathology
-endocrine disorders (hyperthroidism)
-malabsorption syndromes (intestines unable to absorb)
-chronic renal failure (dialysis)
-rheumatoid arthritis (side effects of meds)
-loss of menses
What are the clinical features for osteoporosis?
-loss of height
How do you manage osteoporosis?
-proper nutrition (starting in childhood thru early adulthood (20-30)) studies re: maternal milk, pop consumption, prenatal diet
-screening high risk groups (BMD)
What is osteomalacia?
-softening of bones
-in children it is called rickets
Why has there been and increased incidence rate of rickets?
-children play outside less (decreased vitamin D and stress on bones)
Explain the pathogenesis for osteomalacia.
-inadequate mineralization of newly formed bone
-x ray radiolucent strips of pseudo fxs (looser's zones)
-concave side of long bones, ischial/pubic rami, ribs, scapula
What are the risk factors for osteomalacia?
-diet that has little variety or strictly vegetarian
-diet that is low in milk products
-diet that is low in phosphate
-diet that is low in vitamin D
-anti seizure medications
-environmental conditions, such as limited sunlight and smog
-family history of vitamin D metabolism disorders
-pathology of the liver
What are the clinical manifestations of osteomalacia?
-proximal muscle weakness
-bowing of tibia and femur
What is the most common benign spinal neoplasm?
-Hemanginoma of vertebrae
Demographics of hemanginoma of vertebrae
-women between 40-50
What is hemanginoma of vertebrae and where does normally occur?
-trabecular bone replaced with blood vessels so fractures are common
-thoracic and lumbar spine
What are the symptoms of Hemanginoma?
Symptoms due to compression fractures:
-radicular pain (if reduces size of lateral foramina)
-spinal cord compresion
What is avascular necrosis?
-death of bone tissue due to a lack of blood supply-hip
-irregular surface (flattening of bones)
What are the symptoms of avascular necrosis?
-decreased ROM and pain
-pain may radiate into groin
What are the risk factors for avascular necrosis
-trauma or dislocation
-long term steroid use
-kidney disease with dialysis
-sickle cell disease
What is osteomyelitis?
-infection of bone (staphylococcus aureus)
What causes osteomyelitis?
-open injury to the bone
-a minor trauma, which can lead to a blood clot around the bone and then a secondary infection from seeding of bacteria
-chronic open would or soft tissue infection
What are the risk factors for osteomyelitis?
-sickle cell disease (can cause necrosis)
-IV drug abusers
What are symptoms of osteomyelitis?
-pain and/or tenderness in the infected area
-swelling and warmth in the infected area
-nausea, secondarily from being ill with infection
-drainage of pus through the skin
-fingers and toes common
Sets found in the same folder
PT 434 T4 Degenerative Diseases of the CNS (Multip…
PT 434 T4 Degenerative Disease of the CNS (Parkins…
PT 434 - (1) Introduction to Pathology
PT 434 T4 Stroke
Sets with similar terms
Alterations in the musculoskeletal system
Alterations of the Musculoskeletal System
Anatomy Ch.6/7 Vocab
Other sets by this creator
Cardio Brand and Generic Names
CNS Generic and Brand
NSAIDS ANALGESICS Generic and Brand
Antimicrobial Drug Names