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evolution at or below the level of the species


evolution that is above the level of species, such as orders and classes)

directional selection

average value of a trait is shifted in a particular direction (higher or lower)

stabilizing selection

acts to standardize the population around some average value. May be the most common type of selection

disruptive selection

the environment selects for the two extremes, against the average, splitting the population in two or more types

disruptive selection

diversifying selection is also known as what?

industrial melanism

replacement of a light morph by a dark morph in an industrialized area - nearly 200 species of Lepidoptera


The adjustment or changes in behavior, physiology, and structure of an organism to become more suited to an environment

homologous structures

Structures derived from a common ancestor or same evolutionary or developmental origin, evidence of divergent evolution

analogous structures

Structures of different species having similar or corresponding function but not from the same evolutionary origin. Evidence of convergent evolution. Superficially similar, but structurally and developmentally different

divergent evolution

when an interbreeding population or species splits into two or more descendant species, resulting in differences

convergent evolution

When organisms evolve structures that have similar structures or functions in spite of their evolutionary ancestors being unrelated

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