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12 terms

ebio Microevolution and Macroevolution

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Microevolution
evolution at or below the level of the species
Macroevolution
evolution that is above the level of species, such as orders and classes)
directional selection
average value of a trait is shifted in a particular direction (higher or lower)
stabilizing selection
acts to standardize the population around some average value. May be the most common type of selection
disruptive selection
the environment selects for the two extremes, against the average, splitting the population in two or more types
disruptive selection
diversifying selection is also known as what?
industrial melanism
replacement of a light morph by a dark morph in an industrialized area - nearly 200 species of Lepidoptera
adaptation
The adjustment or changes in behavior, physiology, and structure of an organism to become more suited to an environment
homologous structures
Structures derived from a common ancestor or same evolutionary or developmental origin, evidence of divergent evolution
analogous structures
Structures of different species having similar or corresponding function but not from the same evolutionary origin. Evidence of convergent evolution. Superficially similar, but structurally and developmentally different
divergent evolution
when an interbreeding population or species splits into two or more descendant species, resulting in differences
convergent evolution
When organisms evolve structures that have similar structures or functions in spite of their evolutionary ancestors being unrelated