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95 terms

A&P 232 Pathways and General Receptors

PCC Slyvania AP 232
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The term general sense refers to sensations of all of the following except sensitivity to
Light
The special senses include all of the following except
Tissue Damage
The general sense
involve receptors that are relatively simple
Receptor specificity can be the result of all the following except
tissue location of the receptor cell
Receptor specificity is the result of
The structure of the receptor cell
Accessory structures and tissues that shield the receptors from other stimuli
accessory cells that function with the receptor
Characteristics of the receptor cell membrane
Transduction involves all of the following
Changes in the transmembrane potential of the sensory receptor.
The generation of an action potential that can be processed and interpreted by the CNS.
The production of a generator potential.
A. stimulus altering the permeability of a receptor membrane.
A stimulus altering the permeability of a receptor membrane.
Central adaptation refers to
Inhibition of nuclei located along a sensory pathway
Our perception of our environment is incomplete because of all of the following, except that?
Receptors respond in an all or nothing manner
Nociceptors
Usually have large receptive fields
Thermoreceptors
Are scattered immediately beneath the surface of the skin
A receptor that has a membrane that contains many mechanically regulated ion channels would be?
Tactile receptor
A tactile receptor that responds to deep touch
Ruffini Corpuscle
Sensory receptors that monitor position of joins are called
Proprioceptors
Sensory receptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called
Baroreceptors
A tactile receptor is composed of a capsule that surrounds a core of collagen fibers. Those that are continuous with the dermis and are intertwined with dendrites are called?
Ruffini Corpuscles
A tactile receptor composed of dendrites taht are highly coild and interwoven, surrounded by modified Schwann Cells and fibrous capsule, is a?
Meissner's corpuscle
A tactile receptor that is composed of dendritic process that lie within a series of concentric cellular layers is a
Pacinian Corpuscle
A tactile receptor composed of dendritic processes of a single myelinated fiber that makes contact with unusually large epithlial cells of the stratum germinativum is a ?
Merkel Disc
A tactile receptor that monitors distortions and movements across teh body surface is a
Root hair plexus
Fine touch and pressure receptors provide detailed information about all of the following except the?
Time of stimulus
Tactile receptors include all of the following
Free nerve endings, meissner's corpuscles, the root hair plexus and the merkel's disc
Chemoreceptors are located in all of the
Aortic bodies
Special senses of taste and smell
The respiratory are of the medulla
Carotid bodies
The spinal tract that carries sensory information concerning fine touch and pressure is the
Fasciculus gracilis
The spinal tract that relays information from proprioceptors to the CNS is the
Posterior spinocerebellar
The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the?
Lateral spinothalamic
The spinal tract that relays information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the?
Anterior Spinothalamic
Each of the following is an ascending tract in the spinal cord
Fasciculus gracilis
Anterior spinothalamic
Fasciculus cuneatus
Posterior spinocerebellar
The sensory neuron that delivers the sensation to the CNS is a
First Order Neuron
Interneurons of sensory pathways that are located in the spinal cord or brain are referred to as
Second Order Neuron
Sensory neurons that are located in the thalamus and project to the sensory cortex of the cerebrum
Third Order Neuron
Postsynaptic neurons from the nucleus gracilis
Relay information to the cerebrum by way of the Medial Lemniscus
We can distinguish between sensations that originate in different areas of the body because?
Sensory neurons from each body region synapse in specific brain regions (Primary Motor Sensory)
The spinal tract that regulates voluntary motor control of SKELETAL MUSCLE on the opposite side of the body is the
lateral corticospinal
The spinal tract that regulates INvoluntary control of posture and muscle tone is the
vestibulospinal
Teh spinal tract that controls involuntary regulation of reflex activity and autonomic function is the
reticulospinal
The spinal tract that controls involuntary regulation of eye, head, neck and arm position in the response to visual and auditory stimuli is the
Tectospinal
The pyramidal system provides
Voluntary control over Skeletal Muscles
Voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by the
Pyramidal system
The are of the motor cortex that is devoted to a particular region of the body is relative to the
number of motor units in the area of the body
Axons of the corticobulbar tract terminate at the
Motor nuclei of cranial nerves
Axons of the corticospinal tract synapse at motor
Neurons in the anterior horns of the spinal cord
The pyramids on the surgace of the medulla are formed by fibers of the
corticospinal tract
Axons that decussate in the region of the pyramids of the medullar form the
lateral corticospinal tract
Processing centers of the extra pyramidal system include all of the following
Superior colliculus
Red Nucleus
Vestibular nucleus
Cerebral Nuceli
Spinal tracts of the extrapyramidal system include all of the following tracts:
reticulospinal
tectospinal
rubrospinal
vestibulospinal
The cerebral nuclei
provide a background pattern and rhythm for movement
Complex motor activities such as riding a bicycle or eat
require the coordinated activity of several regions of the brain
The more synapses that information must pass through, the longer it takes the nervous system to access the information and respond. This delay is not dangerous because?
involuntary motor commands are issued by relay stations in the spinal cord and brain stem
The cerebellum adjusts voluntary and involuntary motor activity in response to all of the following:
Proprioceptive data
info. from cerebral cortex
visual information
equilibrum related sensations
Some of the fibers that form the lateral corticospinal tracts are damaged before tehy decussate at the medulla...this injury would affect
Motor function of the opposite side from the damage
Motor neurons whose cell bodies lie in the CNS processing center are called
Upper motor neurons
Somatic sensory information is distributed to sensory processing centers in the
Brain
Visceral sensory information is distributed to sensory processing centers primarily in the
Brain stem and Diencephalon
Sensory receptors are specialized cells or cell processes that provide your CNS with information about conditions
Inside and Outside your body
Special Senses are?
Smell
Sight
Hearing
Balance
Taste receptors are sensitive to dissolved chemicals but insensitive to pressures, why?
Due to receptor specificity
A receptor potential large enough to produce an action potential is called
Generator potential
Sensory information that arrives at the CNS is routed according to the _______of the stimulus
Location and Temperature
Pain receptors are to____as temperature receptors are to______?
nociceptors; thermoreceptors
Peripheral adaptation____the amount of information that reaches the CNS
decreases
Proprioceptors are to _____ as exteroreceptors are to_______.
skeletal muscle; external environment
________are receptors in the lung that monitor the degree of lung expansion
Baroreptors
You are in the hospital with your uncle who was just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is jaw pain. You are not surprised because you are familiar with this phenomenon of
Referred pain
Somatic motor pathways involve at least____motor neurons.
Two
Conscious and subconscious motor commands control skeletal muscles by traveling over the
Medial pathway, Corticospinal pathway and Lateral pathway
The medial and lateral motor pathways can modify, or direct, skeletal muscle contractions by_______lower motor neurons
facilitating, inhibiting and stimulating
The cerebellum monitors
Sensations from the inner ear as movements are under way, proprioreceptors sensations, visual information from the eyes.
_______is a rare condition in which the brain fails to develop at levels above the mesencephalon or inferior part of the diencephalon
Anencephaly
A labeled line is
a link between a receptor and cortical neuron
Receptors are______more numerous than____receptors
Cold; Warm
Related to the medial and lateral pathways: The ____pathway controls_____movements of trunk____limb muscles
medial, precise, and distal
A sensory receptor characterized as free nerve ending, using the amino acid glutamate and neuropeptide Substance P, would likely be a
Nociceptor
The ability to localize a specific stimulus depends on the organized distribution of sensory information to the
Primary sensory cortex
Destruction of or damage to a lower motor neuron in the somatic nervous system produces
Paralysis of the innervated motor unit
Destruction of or damage to a lower motor neuron in the somatic nervous system produces
Paralysis of the innervated motor unit
Damage to the medial lemniscus leads to
Unable to pinpoint the location of sensations of touch, pressure, vibrations and position
All of the following are true of sensations of pricking pain, except that they
Decrease in intensity over time as the receptors adapt
Sensations of burning or aching pain
cause a generalized activation of the reticular formation and the thalamus
What symptoms would you associate with damage to the nucleus gracilis on the right side of the medulla
inability to perceive fine touch from the right leg
Stimulation of a neuron that terminates in the superior portion of the left postcentral gyrus would produce
sensation in the leg
Stimulation of a neuron that originates in the inferior region of the right precentral gyrus would produce
muscle twitch in the left cheek
Damage to the tectospinal tracts would interfere with the
ability to position eyes, head, neck in response to bright lights
Damage to the Pacinian corpuscles of the arm would interfere with the ability to feel
a pinch
Harry was in a biking accident and injures his back. He is examined by a doctor who notices that Harry cannot feel pin pricks in his left foot but can feel the sensation in his right foot as well as his right and left arms of the thorax. These appear to be no problems with the motor activity in any of his appendages. The physician tells Harry that he thinks a portion of the spinal cord may be compressed and is causing these symptoms. Where the problem is probably located
Right lateral spinothalamic tract at the L2 level
____is the area monitored by a single receptor cell
receptor field
The change in transmembrane potential that accompanies receptor stimulation is called
receptor potential
_____is a membrane depolarization that leads to an action potential in an excitable sensory membrane
generator potential
A ____ is the neural link between a receptor and the associated cortical neuron.
labeled line
Sensory neurons that are always active are called
Tonic receptors
______provides information about the strength, duration, variation and movement of a sensory stimulus
sensory coding
The ______ is a map of the sensory cortex of the cerebrum
sensory homunculus
The ______is a map of the motor cortex of the cerebrum
Motor homuculus
The term___refers to a number of disorders that affect voluntary motor performance; they appear during infancy or childhood and persist throughout the life of the affected individual
cerebral palsy
Pain receptors are fast-acting receptors
False
Phastic receptors are also called fast adapting
true