Human Development Chapter 3
Book: The Developing Person Through the Life Span Human Growth and Development Chapter 3 Heredity and Environment
Terms in this set (66)
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
•molecules composed of four nucleotide bases that contain the genes, which are the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins
•has 2 strands forming a "double helix" held together by bongs between pairs of nucleotides
threadlike molecules of DNA that contain genes organized in precise sequences. Each cell contains 46 chromosome 23 pairs
full set of genes that are the instruction to make an individual member of certain species
The genetic makeup of an individual; the total of all the genes a person inherits
one from which any other specialized type of cell can form
environmental factors that affect how genes are expressed
a statistic that refers to the percentage of variation in a particular trait within a particular population in a particular context and era that can be traced to genes
physical, behavioral, and psychological features that result from the interaction between one's genes and the environment
form of an allele whose chemical instructions are followed
allele whose instructions are ignored in the presence of a dominant allele
disorder in which individuals show signs of mild anemia only when they are seriously deprived of oxygen; occurs in individuals who have one dominant allele for normal blood cells and one recessive sickle-cell allele
inherited disorder in which the infant lacks a liver enzyme
progressive and fatal type of dementia caused by dominant alleles
the branch of genetics that studies the inheritance of behavioral and psychological traits
Monozygotic (MZ) twins
the result of a single fertilized egg splitting to form/split two new individuals; also called identical twins
Dizygotic (DZ) twins
the result of two separate eggs fertilized by two sperms; also called fraternal twins
a genotype is manifested in reaction to the environment where development takes place, so a single genotype can lead to a range of phenotypes
a measure (derived from a correlation coefficient) of the extent to which a trait or characteristic is inherited.
process of deliberately seeking environments that are compatible with one's genetic makeup
Nonshared environmental influences
forces within a family that make siblings different from one another
In vitro fertilization
process by which sperm and an egg are mixed in a petri dish to create a zygote, which is then placed in a woman's uterus.
threadlike structures made of DNA modelcules that contain the genes.
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes. (Human genome has 3 billion weakly bonded pairs of nucleotides organized as coiled chains of DNA.)
among the range of , the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity.
The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection. Natural selection has favored genes that designed both behavioral tendencies and information-processing systems that solved adaptive problems faced by our ancestors, thus contributing to the survival and spread of their genes.
In psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
the dependence of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity).
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. females have two x chromosomes; males have one. an x chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
Male sex chromosome
•X-shaped chromosome from the mother and a Y-shaped chromosome from the father
Human sperm and ova, which contain half as many chromosomes a a regular body cell. Reproduction cells.
The process of cell divisions through which gametes are formed and in which the number of chromosomes in each cell is halved.
The newly fertilized cell formed by the union of sperm and ovum at conception.
The 22 matching chromosome pairs in each human cell.
Female sex chromosome
•2 X-shaped chromosomes, one from mother and one from father
Sex chromosomes (23rd Pair)
The twenty third pair of chromosomes, which determines the sex of the individual. In females, called XX; in males, called XY.
A statistic that measures the extent to which individual differences in complex traits, such as intelligence or personality, in a specific population are due to genetic factors.
Each form of a gene located at the same place on corresponding pairs of chromosomes, has several possible sequences of base pairs
Having two identical genes at the same place on a pair of chromosomes.
Having two different genes at the same place on a pair of chromosomes.
A pattern of inheritance in which, under heterozygous conditions, the influence of only one gene is apparent. Only one allele affects the child's characteristics. It is called DOMINANT; the second allele, which has no effect, is called RECESSIVE.
A heterozygous individual who can pass a recessive gene to his or her children.
A pattern of inheritance in which both alleles are expressed, resulting in a combined trait, or one that is intermediate between the two.
A pattern of inheritance in which a recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome. Males are more likely to be affected.
A pattern of inheritance in which genes are imprinted, or chemically marked, in such a way that one member of the pair (either the mothers or the fathers) is activated, regardless of its makeup.
A sudden change in a segment of DNA. Some mutations occur spontaneously, simply by chance. Others are caused by hazardous environmental agents.
A pattern of inheritance in which many genes determine a characteristic.
A communication process designed to help couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals.
Prenatal Diagnostic Methods
If couples who might bear an abnormal child decide to conceive, severl prenatal diagnostic methods---medical procedures that permit detection of problems before birth--are available.
Although potential benefits are great, raises serious social, ethical, and legal concerns. A major controversy involves testing children and adults who are at risk but who do not yet show disease symptoms. Delay between the availability of predictive tests and effective interventions means that people must live with the knowledge that they might become seriously ill.
Environmental Contexts for Development
A many layered set of influences that combine to help or hinder physical and psychological well being. Family is the first and longest lasting context for development. But other settings turn out to be important: friends, neighbors, school, workplace, community organizations, and church, synagogue, or mosque generally make the top ten.
Studies comparing the characteristics of family members to determine the importance of heredity in complex human characteristics.
The percentage of instances in which both twins show a trait when it is present in one twin. Used to study the role of heredity in emotional and behavior disorders, which can be judged as either present or absent.
Our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed. The way this happens changes with age.
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)
a general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain pregnancy
referring to a trait that is influenced by many genes
referring to a trait that is affected by many factors, both genetic and environmental expression
enhancing, halting, shaping or altering the expression of genes, resulting in a phenotype that may differ from the genotype...
Human Genome Project
an international effort to map the complete human genetic code. This effort was essentially completed in 2001, though analysis is ongoing
a condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46, with 3 rather than 2 chromosomes at the 21st site. These people typically have distinctive characteristics, including unusual facial features, heart abnormalities, and language difficulties
Fragile X Syndrome
a genetic disorder in which part of the X chromosome seems to be attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of molecules. The cause is a single gene that has more than 200 repetitions of one triplet