Linguistics Ch. 1 & 2
Terms in this set (107)
Four Steps of Word Analysis
1) Parse 2) Gloss 3) Literal Definition 4) Dictionary Definition
human (anthropology, anthropomorphic, philanthropy)
life (biology, macrobiotic, biography, bioluminescent, microbial)
bad (cacophony, caconym, cacodemonic)
color (monochrome, chromosome, chromatic, chrome)
time (chronic, diachronic, chronometer, anachronistic)
universe, adorn, order (cosmic, cosmopolitan, cosmetic, macrocosm, microcosm, cosmogony, cosmonaut, cosmecology)
marry, unite (monogamy, gamete, bigamy, epigamic, gamosepalous, exogamous, gamophyllous, gamogenesis)
heal (psychiatry, iatrogentic, geriatric, pediatrician)
personal (idiosyncrasy, idiom, idiopathy)
speak, study (logic, eulogy, anthropology, analogy, prologue, logo)
large (macroeconomics, macro, macrocyte)
small (microscope, microcosm, microbe)
hate (misanthrope, misogamy, misogyny, misology)
form (polymorphous, morpheme, morphology)
law, system (astronomy, autonomy, nomothetic, nomogram, metronome)
feel, illness (pathology, sympathy, empathy, pathos, pathetic)
rock (petrify, petroglyph, petroleum)
liking (anglophile, philosophy, philanthropy)
sound (telephone, phonetic, cacophony, phonics, phonology, symphonic)
community (politics, police, political, metropolis, megalopolis)
false (pseudonym, pseudopod, pseudoscience)
mind (psychiatry, psychic, psychotic)
fire (pyromaniac, pyrotechnics, pyrometer)
god (theology, polytheism, theocracy athiest)
place (topography, topical, topology, toponym)
foreign (xenophobia, xeno)
soul (animate, animosity, unanimous)
body (corpus, corpse, corps)
fault (culpable, exculpate)
to lead (duct, conduct, induce, produce, educate, deduct)
flee (fugitive, fugacious, centrifuge)
goodwill (grateful, gratuity)
social group (congregation, egregious, gregarious, segregate)
human (hominid, homicide)
law, deputize (legal, legislature, relegate, legacy, privilege)
balance, weigh (Libra, equilibrium, libration)
letter (literal, literary, literati, alliteration, obliterate, transliterate)
new (novelty, innovate, novice, nova, renovate)
all (omniscient, omnipotent, omnivorous)
to give birth to (parent, post partum, parturition)
seek, go to (appetite, perpetual)
able, powerful (potential, potent, omnipotent, impotent)
good, test (probe, approbation)
know (omniscient, conscious)
cut (bisect, section, sector, insect)
sleep (insomniac, somnolent)
come (intervene, contravene, prevent, eventual, ventive)
true (verify, veritable, veracity)
Sub-Fields of Linguistics
Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics,
The scientific study of language
Categorization of sounds in a Language, the contrastive function different sounds have in a language
The study of human speech sounds
-articularoty phonetics (speech production)
-acoustics (speech acoustics)
-auditory phonetics (speech perception)
One sound becomes more like a nearby sound Eg. k sounds in cape vs. key vs. queen sound different bc of the vowels that follow them
The study of the morpheme and its combination with other morphemes
smallest unit of meaning in a language
The study of the structure of a language, the rules for how words (constituents) combine
-Word Order: English is Subject Verb Object (SVO)
The study of meaning (=lexical)
A Brief History of English
Indo-European (IE) --> Germanic --> West Germanic --> (Old > Middle > Modern) English
Is the bi- morpheme in bicycle the same as the one in biology?
No! These are homophonous morphemes, meaning 'two' and 'life' respectively. How can we tell? The meanings are not related.
Is chew 'something you do to break down your food' and chew 'tobacco you put between your teeth and gums' the same morpheme or not?
Yes! The meaning of chew has changed over time and English has kept both meanings. How can we tell? The meanings are related, both have to do with the mouth/jaw.
multiple morphemes with similar meanings. Often the result of borrowings from two different languages.
-hemi/semi = 'half'
-bi/di = 'two'
-mult/poly = 'many'
-pauc/olig = 'few'
Don't add any meaning, but just connect morphemes together.
three characteristics of morphemes (#1)
1) The cannot be divided into units w/o meaning.
-books (one word) --> book-s (two morphemes)
• b?? bo?? boo?? (not yet), book! (yes! A morpheme)
three characteristics of morphemes (#2)
2) They contribute meaning to the word they are in.
• Morphemes: par / -ent
• Gloss: give birth to / A, N
• Word meaning: e.g., one that brings forth offspring
three characteristics of morphemes (#3)
3) They can appear in many different words
se- 'apart', in words like separate, select, seduce,
4 Challenges in Studying Morphemes (#1)
1) A morpheme is not the same as a syllable
elephant (2s, 1m)
4 Challenges in Studying Morphemes (#2)
2) They may be homophonous (sound the same).
-INcapable 'not' vs. INvade 'into'
-GENetic 'birth' vs. GENuflect 'knee'
- bi- 'two' (as in bicycle) vs. 'life' (as in biology)
4 Challenges in Studying Morphemes (#3)
3) There can be multiple morphemes which mean the same thing.
-hemi-, semi-: 'half' (2 sounds one morpheme)
4 Challenges in Studying Morphemes (#4)
4) The historical meaning is not (necessarily) the same as the current one (semantic change).
• wife: 'woman' (OE) >'woman of humble rank' > 'a female spouse' (now)
-Parse: Divide a word into its morphemes
pro- / duc / (e)
-Gloss: Give meaning for each morpheme
forward / to lead / filler
-Literal Definition: Lexical Meaning from the morphemes
to lead forward
-Dictionary Definition: Definition of the word in real usage
to make something
atheist: a- / the / -ist
Prefixes and suffixes have a hyphen
'not, without' / 'god' / 'N'
3) Literal Definition:
4) Dictionary Definition:
"without the belief in god"
1. Parse : pre- / gn / -ant
2. Gloss: 'before' / 'birth' / 'one who, N'
3. Literal definition: 'One who is before birth'
4. Dictionary definition: e.g. 'someone who is about to give
birth', 'carrying developing offspring within the body', etc.
1. the / (o) / log / -y
2. 'god' / filler / 'speak, study' / N
3. Study god.
4. e.g. The study of God, the study of religion, etc.
1. morph / (o) / log / -y
2. 'form' / filler / 'speak, study' / N
3. Study form
4. e.g. The study of form, the study of structure.
Are any of the following words more 'English'-like
than the others? Are any less 'English'-like? Why?
Native: More familiar, simpler, shorter, more basic (body parts, familial relations, natural objects, physical acts, physical characteristics)
Borrowed: More formal, more technical, longer
2 reasons for borrowed words
Need & Prestige
which of the following are native words?
• A. Hand
• B. exertion
• C. renovate
• D. tooth
• E. fluctuate
• F. tree
• G. ask
• H. telegraph
• I. ash
Native or Borrowed:
1. in- / grat / (i) / -ate
2. 'in, into' / 'goodwill'/ filler / N, A, V
3. Into goodwill
4. e.g. To bring oneself into the favor of others
1. con- / greg / -ate / -tion
2. 'with' / 'social group' / N,A,V / N
3. With social group
4. e.g. A group of people together
1. mis / anthrop / (e)
2. 'hate' / 'human' / filler
3. 'Human hater'
4. e.g. Someone who dislikes humans.
1. bi / (o) / log / -y
2. 'life' / filler / 'speak, study'/ N
3. Study life
4. The study of life.
1. cac / (o) / phon / -y
2. 'bad' / filler / 'sound' / N
3. 'Bad sound'
4. e.g. A harsh mixture of sounds.
1. xen / (o) / gam /-y
2. 'foreign'/ filler / 'marry, unite'/ N
3. 'Unite foreign'
4. e.g. To bring together foreign things.
• BTW, xenogamy's actual definition: "Fertilization of a flower by pollen from a
flower on a genetically different plant."
What phylum is English a member of?
What family is English a member of?
What sub-family is English a member of?
Name 2 other families in the same phylum that English is a member of
• Which type of category includes the following languages:
English, Frisian, Dutch, Afrikaans, etc.
Which type of category includes the following (groups of)
languages: Celtic, Hellenic, Italic, Germanic.
• Which type of category includes the following languages:
English, Norwegian, Gothic, etc.
The 3 languages that English has borrowed the most
Greek, Latin, and French.
one word multiple morphemes (morphological composition) (eg. Finnish)
one word, one morpheme (eg. Thai)
languages that cannot be proven to be related to any other attested languages (eg. Korean)
A word that labels an actual or abstract thing that may
act as subject or object of the verb (often end in 'tion')
A word that details activity, process or state of being or
becoming in a construction with a subject or object noun (often words that end in ed)
a word that modifies a noun (often words that end in al)
A word that either marks the manner or direction in
which a verb is performed; modifies an adjective, or
comments on an entire sentence from the speaker's
perspective (often words that end in ly)
A word, phrase or affix that occurs together with
a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of
that noun or noun phrase in the context
A word that marks a spatial relationship, usually
with regard to something labeled by a noun
1) Time / flies / like the wind.
2) Fruit flies / like / bananas.
4 Sentences with "back"
• I feel pain in my back. (N)
• He backed me up really nice. (V)
• They came out from the back door. (Adj)
• We moved back. (Adv)
We can categorize morphemes into two broad
categories based on their function and form:
Roots and Affixes
Root Major function: to carry the 'core' conceptual
meaning of a word.
Affix Major function: to modify meaning of the root(s)
can either be prefixes or suffixes