41 terms

Psych Ch.5

the ability to store and retrieve information over time
the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory
the process of maintaining information in memory over time
the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored
elaborative encoding
the process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory
visual imagery encoding
the process of storying new information by converting it into mental pictures
organizational encoding
the act of categorizing information by noticing the relationships among a series of items
memory storage
the process of maintaining information in memory over time
sensory memory store
the place in which sensory information is kept for a dew seconds or less
iconic memory
a fast-decaying story of visual information
echoic memory
a fast-decaying story of auditory information
short-term memory store
a place where nonsense information is kept for more than a few seconds but less than a minute
the processes of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it
combining of information into larger clusters or chunks that are easily held in short-term memory
working memory
active maintenance of information in short-term storage
long-term memory store
a place in which information can be kept for hours, days, weeks, or years
anterograde amnesia
the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store
retrograde amnesia
the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or operation
long-term potentiation (LTP)
enhanced neural processing that results from the strengthening of synaptic connections
retrieval cue
external information that is associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind
encoding specificity principle
the idea that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it help re-create the specific way in which information was initially encoded
state-dependent retrieval
the tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval
transfer-appropriate processing
the idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when we process information in a way that is appropriate to the retrieval cues that will be available later
explicit memory
the act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences
implicit memory
the influence of past experiences on later behavior and performance even though people are not trying to recollect them and are not aware that they are remembering them
procedural memory
the gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice, or "knowing how," to do things
an enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus
semantic memory
a network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world
episodic memory
the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place
forgetting what occurs with the passage of time
retroactive interference
situations in which later learning impairs memory for information acquired earlier
proactive interference
situations in which earlier learning impairs memory for information acquired later
a lapse in attention that results in memory failure
prospective memory
remembering to do things in the future
a failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though are trying to produce it
memory misattribution
assigning a recollection of an idea to the wrong source
source memory
recall of when, where, and how information was acquired
the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections
the distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences
the intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget
flashbulb memories
detailed recollections of when are where he heard about shocking events