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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Reconstruction and the changing south
Terms in this set (57)
Around what time does President Abraham Lincoln propose a mild reconstruction plan for readmitting southern states after the Civil War?
What year is Lincoln assassinated and how many days after the war does he get killed?
Why does the issue of readmitting southern states remain unresolved?
Lincoln is assassinated in 1865
When does radical reconstruction began? And what is radical reconstruction?
During the time period of 1867 and it is when Republican leaders in Congress call for harsh measures against the south.
What year is the 15th amendment ratified and what is the 15th amendment?
It is ratified in 1870 and it forbids states to deny citizens the right to vote because of race
When does Rutherford B Hayes run again Samuel Tilden and in a disputed election? And who becomes president? what does this president end up doing?
1876, Rutherford B Hayes, ends reconstruction
What time and what occurred in Plessy versus Ferguson?
1896, The Supreme Court rules that it is legal for a state to create separate facilities for blacks and whites
At the end of the Civil War, what happened to the south?
Susan Dabney Smedes said that her father had come home to a house stripped of nearly every article of furniture and a few mulesand one cow were all that were left of the stock. Across the South cities and farms lay in ruins and all Southerners black or white faced terrible conditions.
What are some Post War Problems that the victorious north faced?
Despite their victory northerners face the number of economic problems. 800,000 returning Union soldiers needed jobs, government was canceling it's war orders,and factories were laying off workers. The north lost more soldiers in the war than the south did. However only a few battles had taken place on the northern soil. Northern forms and cities were barely touched.
What are some Post War problems that the defeated south faced?
Every house barn in bridge had been destroyed. Two thirds of the South's railroad tracks have been turned into twisted heaps of scrap. The war wrecked the South's financial system. Confederate money was worthless. People who had loaned money to the Confederacy were never repaid and many Southern banks closed and depositors lost their savings.
What were Freedmen and what were they for bidden to do?
They were a new class of nearly 4,000,000 people. Men and women who have been slaves. Under slavery they've been forbidden to own property and to learn to read and write.
What happened during the early steps toward reconstruction?
President Lincoln was worried about reconstruction or the rebuilding of the south and he wanted to make it fairly easy for southerners to rejoin the union. The sooner the nation was reunited the faster the South would be able to rebuild.
What is Lincoln's reconstruction plan?
Lincoln outlined his 10% plan for reconstruction. Under this plan a southern state could form a new government after 10% of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States. The new government had to abolish slavery. Voters could then elect members of Congress and take part in the national government once again.
What did Lincolns plan also offer?
Amnesty, or a government pardon, to confederates Who swore loyalty to the union. Amnesty would not apply to the former leaders of the Confederacy.
Why did Republicans in Congress pass the Wade Davis Bill, the rival plan for reconstruction?
Republicans in Congress felt that the 10% plan was to generous toward the south. The Wade Davis bill required a majority of white men in each southern state to swear loyalty to the union. It also denied the right to vote or hold office to anyone who had volunteered to fight for the confederacy. Lincoln however refused to sign the bill because he felt it was too harsh.
What proposal did Congress and the president agree on?
After Lee surrendered, Congress passed a bill creating the Freedmens bureau, a government agency to help former slaves. Lincoln signed the bill.
What did the Freedman's bureau provide?
They offered food and clothing to former slaves it also tried to find jobs and the bureau helped poor whites as well. It provided medical care for more than 1 million people. They set up schools for Friedman most of the teachers were volunteers often woman from the north. Grandparents and grandchildren sat side-by-side in the classroom. It laid the foundation for selves public school system and also created colleges for African-Americans including Howard more house and Fisk.
With the Freedman bureaus help what were African-Americans able to do by 1870?
They were teaching in grade schools throughout the south, they became teachers.
Why did President Lincoln never get the chance to persuade Congress to except his reconstruction plan?
(April 14,1865) Just five days after we surrender the president attended a play at Ford's theater in Washington DC. John Wilkes Booth crept into the presidents box and shot Lincoln in the head. Lincoln died the next morning. Booth was later caught and killed in a barn outside the city.
Who is the new president after Lincoln's death?
Who did President Johnson represent in Congress?
What is Johnson's plan?
Republicans in Congress believe Johnston would support a strict reconstruction plan. It called for a majority of the letters that you southern state to pledge loyalty to the United States. Each state also had to ratify the 13th amendment.
Who was Charlotte Forten?
An African American volunteer from Philadelphia.
What is the 13th amendment?
It banned slavery throughout the nation.
Did the Emancipation Proclamation free slaves in states loyal to the union?
Why did Congress rebel?
The president improve their new state governments in late 1865. Voters in the south then elected representatives to Congress. Many of those elected had held office in the Confederacy. For example Alexander Stevens the former vice President of the Confederacy was elected senator from Georgia. Republicans in Congress were in raged. The men who had led the south out of the Union were being elected to the house and senate. Also no southern state allowed AA to vote.
When the new Congress met...
Republicans refused to let southern representatives take their seats. They set up a joint committee on reconstruction to form a new plan for the south. The stage is set for a showdown between Congress and the president.
The 13th amendment been not only slavery but also...
Who was WEB DuBois?
African-American writer. He described some of the problems faced by the Freedman's bureau
As it set up new schools throughout the south the Freedman's bureau faced what problems?
Faced the problem of finding enough teachers for so many eager new students
In New Orleans during radical reconstruction what happened with the Confederate flags?
They were being sold in the streets. In Mississippi the governor refused to fly the American flag over the state capital. After hearing this Republicans decided to take harsh measures against the south again.
What angered Congress?
After the war most southern states promptly ratify the 13th amendment however southern legislators also passed Black codes.
What are black codes?
Laws that severely limited the rights of Freedman
Rights of black codes?
African-Americans could marry legally and own some kinds of property.
What was the main reason of black codes?
The codes were clearly meant to keep Freedman from gaining political or economic power.
Restrictions a black codes?
For bade them to vote own guns or serve on jury's. In some states African-Americans were permitted to work only a servants or farm laborers. And others they had to sign contracts for years work. Those without contracts would be arrested and sentenced to work on a plantation.
If Freedman did not have a contract what would be their punishment?
They would be arrested and sentenced to work on a plantation.
Why did the black codes anger Congress?
Republican charged that Johnson's lenient reconstruction plan had encouraged southern legislators to pass the black codes. Republicans were also outraged by the reports of violence against freedmen.
In 1866 what did angry whites do?
Angry whites burned homes churches in school houses and a black section of Memphis Tennessee
How many African-Americans were killed in Memphis Tennessee?
When Friedman met tosupport the right to vote, what happened?
A report by the joint committee on reconstruction accused the south of trying to...?
Preserve slavery as long as possible
When President Johnson ignore the report what happened?
Members of Congress called radical Republicans vowed to take control of reconstruction.
Who were the radicals led by?
Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania in the house and Charles Sumner of Massachusetts and the senate
What were the two main goals of the radical Republicans?
They wanted to break the power of wealthy planters who had long ruled the south and they wanted to ensure that freed men received the right to vote.
Why did the Republicans want control?
Radicals needed the support of moderate Republicans the largest group in Congress
Radicals and ____ disagreed on many issues but they shared a strong political motive
Were most Southerners Republicans or Democrats?
With Southerners barred from Congress what could Republicans control?
What did Congress pass to combat the black codes? What did it do?
The civil rights act in April 1866. It gave citizenship to African-Americans. When Johnson vetoed the bill Congress overrode the veto.
What did Republicans fear after the civil rights act was passed?
They feared that the Supreme Court might use its power of judicial review to declare the civil rights act unconstitutional.
What happened in the Dred Scott decision of 1857?
The court had rolled the African-Americans were not citizens.
To avoid a decision like the Dred Scott decision Republicans proposed what?
What is the 14th amendment? Who did it not apply to?
It's defined citizens as all persons born or naturalized in the United States. It did not apply to most Native Americans. It guaranteed citizens equal protection of the laws and for bade states to deprive any person of life liberty or property without due process of law. States could not legally discriminate against a citizen on unreasonable grounds such as race
Under the 14th amendment any state that denied any male __ or older the right to vote would have its...?
21, would have its representation to Congress reduced.
What did Republicans believe that Freedman would be able to do if they could vote?
They would be able to defend their rights
After the radicals are in power what did President Johnson encourage former Confederate states to do?
He wanted them to reject the 14th amendment and he also decided to make the amendment an issue in the 1866 congressional elections.
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