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If the cell body of an autonomic motor neuron lies in the CNS. This is called?


The preganalionic fives that connect a spinal nerve with an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord are the

white ramus communicantes

The postganglionic fibers that connect an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic or lumbar region with the local spinal nerve are called the

gray ramus communicantes

Posteganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system that innervate internal organs do not rejoin the spinal nerve but form

autonomic nerves

Transduction involves all of the following except

an inhibition of certain specific regions in the cerebral cortex

Central adaption refers to

Inhibition of nuclei located along a sensory pathway

Our perception of our environment is incomplete because of all of the following, except that

Receptors respond in an all or nothing manner

Second order neurons of the autonomic nervous system are located in

autonomic ganglia

Postganglionic axons of autonomic neurons are usually


The division of the autonomic nervous system that maintains homeostasis during resting conditions is the _____division


Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the

Lateral gray horns of segments T1-L2 of the spinal cord

Groups of second-order sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called____ganglia


Groups of second-order neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called____ganglia


Specialized second-order neurons of the sympathetic nervous system that release neurotransmitters into the bloodstream are located in the

adrenal glands

Preganaglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system that carry motor impulses to targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity synapse in a(n)

chain ganglion

each of the following effects is associated with the action of postganglionic sympathetic fibers, except

decreased heart rate

Splanchnic nerves

Carry fivers that synapse in collateral ganglia

The celiac ganglion innervates the

Liver, Pancreas, Stomach

Sympathetic innervation of the urinary bladder and sex organs is by way of the

inferior mesenteric ganglion

There are ____sympathetic collateral ganglia located in the abdominal cavity


Preganglionic fivers of parasympathetic neurons can be found in all of the following cranial nerves


Almost 75 percent of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the


Each of the following ganglia contains parasympathetic synapses, except the

celiac ganglion

Intramural ganglia in the kidney, urinary bladder, and sex organs receive innervation by the way of the ____nerves


Postganglionic neurons in the adrenal galnd

release epinephrine into the blood capillaries

Teh event called sympathetic activation

is controlled by sympathetic centers in the hypothalamus

Sweat glands contain ____ receptors


Nicotinic receptors

open sodium channels when stimulated

Muscarinic receptors

are activated by AcH

Increased parasympathetic stimulation

increases gastric motility

Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving

both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves

Sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers for the heart and the lungs pass through the

Cardiac plexus

Normal control of the diameter of the respiratory passages depends upon

both parasympathetic and sympathetic levels of stimulation

Autonomic tone is an important aspect of ANS function because

allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing range of control options

A decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in blood vessels would result

an increase in vessel diameter

Autonomic tone of peripheral blood vessels would be greatest when

sympathetic stimulation is increase

Which of the following is not a visceral reflex?

cremaster reflex

Each of the following visceral reflexes is coordinated by the medulla, except the

pupillary reflex

Which of the following would be an example of higher level control of autonomic function?

increased heart rate when you see a person you dislike

Which of the following controls visceral effectors


Preganglionic fibers leave the CNS and synapse to

ganglionic neurons

Ganglionic neurons innervate such things as

Cardiac Muscle, Glands, Adipose tissue, and smooth muscle

The parasympathetic nervous system dominates which conditions?


The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following?

thoracolumbar division

In the sympathetic division, preganglionic fibers are ____ and postganglionic fibers are_____

short; long

Craniosacral division is another name for the

parasympathetic division

In the parasympathetic division, preganglionic fibers are_______, and postganglionic fibers are______

long; short

Collateral ganglia contain neurons that innervate tissues and organs in which cavity?


Sympathetic nerves

Are bundles of postganglionic nerves in the thoraic cavity

Preganglionic nerves that innervate the collateral ganglia form

splanchnic nerves

Celiac ganglia innervate which of the following

gallbladder, spleen

The adrenal medulla secretes


During sympathetic activation, _______occurs

elevated blood pressure

The stimulation of beta-1 receptors leads to

an increase in metabolic activity

When you use an allergy inhaler, the medicine acts on which type of receptor


Parasympathetic activities include all of the following

1. decrease in the force of contraction
2. constriction of the pupils
3. reduction in heart rate
4. stimulation of defecation

Ganglionic neurons that innervate tissues and organs in the abdominopelvic cavity are located in the

collateral ganglia

The effect of the neurotransmitter on the target cell depends on the nature of the

receptor on the postsynaptic membrane

Autonomic tone in autonomic motor neurons exist because ANS neurons

from both divisions commonly innervate the same organ

Injury to the neurons of a collateral ganglion would affect the function of the

digestive tract

Damage to the ventral roots of the first five thoracic spinal nerves on the right side of the body would interfere with the ability to

dilate the right pupil

Stimulation of the neurons in the celiac ganglion would lead to

release of glucose from the livers glycogen reserves

Epinephrine and norepinephrine released from the adrenal glands affect target tissue for a longer period of time that the same substances when released from neurons at their peripheral receptors, Why?

There are no enzymes to break down epinephrine and norepinephrine in the blood and few enzymes in peripheral tissues.

Drugs that have effects similar to those of norepinephrine and epinephrine are called sympathomimetic drugs. Which of the following symptoms would you NOT expect to observe in a person who has taken an excess of sympathomimetic drugs?

decreased blood pressure

Close examination of an effector organ shows that it receives innervation by way of two neurons. The first located in the cord and synapses with a second in a chain ganglion. Chemical analysis indicates that the postsynaptic neuron releases AcH and that the effector has many cholinergic receptors. The effector is probably

A sweat gland

A certain drug decrease heart rate by producing hyperpolarization at the membrane of the pacemaker cells of the heart. This drug probably binds to _____ receptors


A neuron with nicotini receptors is stimulated by an AcH agonist. This will cause

an increase in intracellular sodium ion

Drugs known as beta blockers would be useful for treating

high blood pressure

Drugs that stimulate alpha receptors causing constriction of peripheral vessels are


Sympathomimetic drugs might be used to

dilate bronchioles

Paraympathetic blocking agents would be useful in treating


As the result of an accident, the white rami of spinal nerves T1-T2 on the left side of the body are severed. What organs would you expect to be affected by this

pupils and heart

A patient is about to undergo major surgery for a tumor in the chest. Two hours before the surgery the patient experiences "jitters", an elevated heart rate and blood pressure, increase rate of breathing, cold sweats, and an urge to urinate. These symptoms are the result of

sympathetic activation

A patient suffers from high blood pressure. Which of the following might be help deal with this problem? A drug that

blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue

Hallucinogenic drugs, LSD function by

stimulating serotonin receptors

The neurotransmitter that may be linked to schizophrenia is


Hypersecretion of GABA, by the neurons of the cerebral nuclei would result in

flaccidity of skeletal muscles

What symptoms would you except to observe in a person who is taking a drug that blocks secretion of NE in the CNS


Preganglionic fibers of parasympathetic nerves synapse on neurons located in

intramural ganglia

Every spinal nerve receives a gray ramus from a ganglion of the sympathetic chain


The effects of Ach last longer than those of NE


Which of the following is essential for memory consolidation


Memories that can be voluntarily retrieved and verbally expressed are called

declarative memories

Conversion of a short term memory to a long term memory is called

memory consolidation

The conscious state depends upon the proper functioning of the

reticular activating system (RAS)

The center of the reticular activating system appears to be located in teh


A state consciousness characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language, and changes in personality is called


A state of unconsciousness in which an individual can be aroused by normal stimuli is


A state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to stimuli is


Changes in the CNS that accompany aging include

reduction in brain size and weight

Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation

dilation of the pupils

Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the

thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete NE

Sympathetic nervous system stimulation causes

increase blood glucose, decrease GI peristalsis, and increase heart rate and blood pressure

In contrast to somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system:

has two motor neurons

Which of these effectors is NOT controlled by the autonomic system

Skeletal Muscle

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