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95 terms

AP 232 Chapter 15

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If the cell body of an autonomic motor neuron lies in the CNS. This is called?
preganglionic
The preganalionic fives that connect a spinal nerve with an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord are the
white ramus communicantes
The postganglionic fibers that connect an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic or lumbar region with the local spinal nerve are called the
gray ramus communicantes
Posteganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system that innervate internal organs do not rejoin the spinal nerve but form
autonomic nerves
Transduction involves all of the following except
an inhibition of certain specific regions in the cerebral cortex
Central adaption refers to
Inhibition of nuclei located along a sensory pathway
Our perception of our environment is incomplete because of all of the following, except that
Receptors respond in an all or nothing manner
Second order neurons of the autonomic nervous system are located in
autonomic ganglia
Postganglionic axons of autonomic neurons are usually
unmyelinated
The division of the autonomic nervous system that maintains homeostasis during resting conditions is the _____division
parasympathetic
Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the
Lateral gray horns of segments T1-L2 of the spinal cord
Groups of second-order sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called____ganglia
chain
Groups of second-order neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called____ganglia
collateral
Specialized second-order neurons of the sympathetic nervous system that release neurotransmitters into the bloodstream are located in the
adrenal glands
Preganaglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system that carry motor impulses to targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity synapse in a(n)
chain ganglion
each of the following effects is associated with the action of postganglionic sympathetic fibers, except
decreased heart rate
Splanchnic nerves
Carry fivers that synapse in collateral ganglia
The celiac ganglion innervates the
Liver, Pancreas, Stomach
Sympathetic innervation of the urinary bladder and sex organs is by way of the
inferior mesenteric ganglion
There are ____sympathetic collateral ganglia located in the abdominal cavity
3
Preganglionic fivers of parasympathetic neurons can be found in all of the following cranial nerves
III, VII, IX, X
Almost 75 percent of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the
VAGUS X
Each of the following ganglia contains parasympathetic synapses, except the
celiac ganglion
Intramural ganglia in the kidney, urinary bladder, and sex organs receive innervation by the way of the ____nerves
pelvic
Postganglionic neurons in the adrenal galnd
release epinephrine into the blood capillaries
Teh event called sympathetic activation
is controlled by sympathetic centers in the hypothalamus
Sweat glands contain ____ receptors
cholinergic
Nicotinic receptors
open sodium channels when stimulated
Muscarinic receptors
are activated by AcH
Increased parasympathetic stimulation
increases gastric motility
Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving
both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves
Sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers for the heart and the lungs pass through the
Cardiac plexus
Normal control of the diameter of the respiratory passages depends upon
both parasympathetic and sympathetic levels of stimulation
Autonomic tone is an important aspect of ANS function because
allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing range of control options
A decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in blood vessels would result
an increase in vessel diameter
Autonomic tone of peripheral blood vessels would be greatest when
sympathetic stimulation is increase
Which of the following is not a visceral reflex?
cremaster reflex
Each of the following visceral reflexes is coordinated by the medulla, except the
pupillary reflex
Which of the following would be an example of higher level control of autonomic function?
increased heart rate when you see a person you dislike
Which of the following controls visceral effectors
ANS
Preganglionic fibers leave the CNS and synapse to
ganglionic neurons
Ganglionic neurons innervate such things as
Cardiac Muscle, Glands, Adipose tissue, and smooth muscle
The parasympathetic nervous system dominates which conditions?
rest
The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following?
thoracolumbar division
In the sympathetic division, preganglionic fibers are ____ and postganglionic fibers are_____
short; long
Craniosacral division is another name for the
parasympathetic division
In the parasympathetic division, preganglionic fibers are_______, and postganglionic fibers are______
long; short
Collateral ganglia contain neurons that innervate tissues and organs in which cavity?
abdominopelvic
Sympathetic nerves
Are bundles of postganglionic nerves in the thoraic cavity
Preganglionic nerves that innervate the collateral ganglia form
splanchnic nerves
Celiac ganglia innervate which of the following
gallbladder, spleen
The adrenal medulla secretes
TSH, NE
During sympathetic activation, _______occurs
elevated blood pressure
The stimulation of beta-1 receptors leads to
an increase in metabolic activity
When you use an allergy inhaler, the medicine acts on which type of receptor
Beta-2
Parasympathetic activities include all of the following
1. decrease in the force of contraction
2. constriction of the pupils
3. reduction in heart rate
4. stimulation of defecation
Ganglionic neurons that innervate tissues and organs in the abdominopelvic cavity are located in the
collateral ganglia
The effect of the neurotransmitter on the target cell depends on the nature of the
receptor on the postsynaptic membrane
Autonomic tone in autonomic motor neurons exist because ANS neurons
from both divisions commonly innervate the same organ
Injury to the neurons of a collateral ganglion would affect the function of the
digestive tract
Damage to the ventral roots of the first five thoracic spinal nerves on the right side of the body would interfere with the ability to
dilate the right pupil
Stimulation of the neurons in the celiac ganglion would lead to
release of glucose from the livers glycogen reserves
Epinephrine and norepinephrine released from the adrenal glands affect target tissue for a longer period of time that the same substances when released from neurons at their peripheral receptors, Why?
There are no enzymes to break down epinephrine and norepinephrine in the blood and few enzymes in peripheral tissues.
Drugs that have effects similar to those of norepinephrine and epinephrine are called sympathomimetic drugs. Which of the following symptoms would you NOT expect to observe in a person who has taken an excess of sympathomimetic drugs?
decreased blood pressure
Close examination of an effector organ shows that it receives innervation by way of two neurons. The first located in the cord and synapses with a second in a chain ganglion. Chemical analysis indicates that the postsynaptic neuron releases AcH and that the effector has many cholinergic receptors. The effector is probably
A sweat gland
A certain drug decrease heart rate by producing hyperpolarization at the membrane of the pacemaker cells of the heart. This drug probably binds to _____ receptors
muscarinic
A neuron with nicotini receptors is stimulated by an AcH agonist. This will cause
an increase in intracellular sodium ion
Drugs known as beta blockers would be useful for treating
high blood pressure
Drugs that stimulate alpha receptors causing constriction of peripheral vessels are
sympathomimetic
Sympathomimetic drugs might be used to
dilate bronchioles
Paraympathetic blocking agents would be useful in treating
diarrhea
As the result of an accident, the white rami of spinal nerves T1-T2 on the left side of the body are severed. What organs would you expect to be affected by this
pupils and heart
A patient is about to undergo major surgery for a tumor in the chest. Two hours before the surgery the patient experiences "jitters", an elevated heart rate and blood pressure, increase rate of breathing, cold sweats, and an urge to urinate. These symptoms are the result of
sympathetic activation
A patient suffers from high blood pressure. Which of the following might be help deal with this problem? A drug that
blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue
Hallucinogenic drugs, LSD function by
stimulating serotonin receptors
The neurotransmitter that may be linked to schizophrenia is
Dopamine
Hypersecretion of GABA, by the neurons of the cerebral nuclei would result in
flaccidity of skeletal muscles
What symptoms would you except to observe in a person who is taking a drug that blocks secretion of NE in the CNS
depression
Preganglionic fibers of parasympathetic nerves synapse on neurons located in
intramural ganglia
Every spinal nerve receives a gray ramus from a ganglion of the sympathetic chain
True
The effects of Ach last longer than those of NE
False
Which of the following is essential for memory consolidation
hippocampus
Memories that can be voluntarily retrieved and verbally expressed are called
declarative memories
Conversion of a short term memory to a long term memory is called
memory consolidation
The conscious state depends upon the proper functioning of the
reticular activating system (RAS)
The center of the reticular activating system appears to be located in teh
mesencephalon
A state consciousness characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language, and changes in personality is called
Dementia
A state of unconsciousness in which an individual can be aroused by normal stimuli is
sleep
A state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to stimuli is
coma
Changes in the CNS that accompany aging include
reduction in brain size and weight
Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation
dilation of the pupils
Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the
thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete NE
Sympathetic nervous system stimulation causes
increase blood glucose, decrease GI peristalsis, and increase heart rate and blood pressure
In contrast to somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system:
has two motor neurons
Which of these effectors is NOT controlled by the autonomic system
Skeletal Muscle