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The preganalionic fives that connect a spinal nerve with an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord are the
white ramus communicantes
The postganglionic fibers that connect an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic or lumbar region with the local spinal nerve are called the
gray ramus communicantes
Posteganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system that innervate internal organs do not rejoin the spinal nerve but form
Transduction involves all of the following except
an inhibition of certain specific regions in the cerebral cortex
Our perception of our environment is incomplete because of all of the following, except that
Receptors respond in an all or nothing manner
The division of the autonomic nervous system that maintains homeostasis during resting conditions is the _____division
Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the
Lateral gray horns of segments T1-L2 of the spinal cord
Groups of second-order sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called____ganglia
Groups of second-order neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called____ganglia
Specialized second-order neurons of the sympathetic nervous system that release neurotransmitters into the bloodstream are located in the
Preganaglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system that carry motor impulses to targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity synapse in a(n)
each of the following effects is associated with the action of postganglionic sympathetic fibers, except
decreased heart rate
Sympathetic innervation of the urinary bladder and sex organs is by way of the
inferior mesenteric ganglion
Preganglionic fivers of parasympathetic neurons can be found in all of the following cranial nerves
III, VII, IX, X
Intramural ganglia in the kidney, urinary bladder, and sex organs receive innervation by the way of the ____nerves
Normal control of the diameter of the respiratory passages depends upon
both parasympathetic and sympathetic levels of stimulation
Autonomic tone is an important aspect of ANS function because
allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing range of control options
A decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in blood vessels would result
an increase in vessel diameter
Autonomic tone of peripheral blood vessels would be greatest when
sympathetic stimulation is increase
Which of the following would be an example of higher level control of autonomic function?
increased heart rate when you see a person you dislike
Ganglionic neurons innervate such things as
Cardiac Muscle, Glands, Adipose tissue, and smooth muscle
In the sympathetic division, preganglionic fibers are ____ and postganglionic fibers are_____
In the parasympathetic division, preganglionic fibers are_______, and postganglionic fibers are______
Collateral ganglia contain neurons that innervate tissues and organs in which cavity?
Parasympathetic activities include all of the following
1. decrease in the force of contraction
2. constriction of the pupils
3. reduction in heart rate
4. stimulation of defecation
Ganglionic neurons that innervate tissues and organs in the abdominopelvic cavity are located in the
The effect of the neurotransmitter on the target cell depends on the nature of the
receptor on the postsynaptic membrane
Autonomic tone in autonomic motor neurons exist because ANS neurons
from both divisions commonly innervate the same organ
Damage to the ventral roots of the first five thoracic spinal nerves on the right side of the body would interfere with the ability to
dilate the right pupil
Stimulation of the neurons in the celiac ganglion would lead to
release of glucose from the livers glycogen reserves
Epinephrine and norepinephrine released from the adrenal glands affect target tissue for a longer period of time that the same substances when released from neurons at their peripheral receptors, Why?
There are no enzymes to break down epinephrine and norepinephrine in the blood and few enzymes in peripheral tissues.
Drugs that have effects similar to those of norepinephrine and epinephrine are called sympathomimetic drugs. Which of the following symptoms would you NOT expect to observe in a person who has taken an excess of sympathomimetic drugs?
decreased blood pressure
Close examination of an effector organ shows that it receives innervation by way of two neurons. The first located in the cord and synapses with a second in a chain ganglion. Chemical analysis indicates that the postsynaptic neuron releases AcH and that the effector has many cholinergic receptors. The effector is probably
A sweat gland
A certain drug decrease heart rate by producing hyperpolarization at the membrane of the pacemaker cells of the heart. This drug probably binds to _____ receptors
A neuron with nicotini receptors is stimulated by an AcH agonist. This will cause
an increase in intracellular sodium ion
As the result of an accident, the white rami of spinal nerves T1-T2 on the left side of the body are severed. What organs would you expect to be affected by this
pupils and heart
A patient is about to undergo major surgery for a tumor in the chest. Two hours before the surgery the patient experiences "jitters", an elevated heart rate and blood pressure, increase rate of breathing, cold sweats, and an urge to urinate. These symptoms are the result of
A patient suffers from high blood pressure. Which of the following might be help deal with this problem? A drug that
blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue
Hypersecretion of GABA, by the neurons of the cerebral nuclei would result in
flaccidity of skeletal muscles
What symptoms would you except to observe in a person who is taking a drug that blocks secretion of NE in the CNS
A state consciousness characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language, and changes in personality is called
A state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to stimuli is
Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the
thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete NE
Sympathetic nervous system stimulation causes
increase blood glucose, decrease GI peristalsis, and increase heart rate and blood pressure
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