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bio 172 exam 2

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Integrins are proteins that form connections between the:
cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix
Cadherin is an example of
a cell adhesion molecule.
Electrons farthest from the nucleus have the ____________.
most potential energy
True or False: Oxidation is the gain of electrons.
False
The entire set of chemical reactions that sustain life is called ____________.
Metabolism
Synthesis of a protein is an example of a chemical reaction that is ____________.
endergonic and anabolic
Which best describes energy production during cellular respiration?
A small amount of energy is produced by substrate level phosphorylation; most is produced by oxidative phosphorylation.
The first law of thermodynamics states that ____________.
energy cannot be created or destroyed
In ____________, large molecules are broken down and ATP is produced.
catabolism
____________ are organisms that derive carbon from organic compounds.
Heterotrophs
Which type of cellular junction allows for the movement of proteins and transfer RNA molecules?
plasmodesmata
____________ are organisms that derive energy from sunlight.
Phototrophs
Building a protein by adding amino acids to the chain is an example of ____________.
catabolism
Organisms that derive their energy and carbon from organic compounds are ____________.
chemoheterotrophs
The electron transport chain is part of:
oxidative phosphorylation.
All of the following are produced in a human muscle cell under anaerobic conditions except
acetyl CoA
Which of the following is a product of the Calvin cycle?
NADP+
What do the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis produce?
ATP and NADPH
What is released when a plant carries out photosynthesis?
Oxygen
The majority of energy generated in the citric acid cycle is in the form of:
energy electrons donated to NAD+ and FADH.
Which organisms are capable of photosynthesis?
Both some bacteria and some algae
Which of the following represents the major (but not the only) energy accomplishment of the citric acid cycle?
Formation of NADH and FADH2
What is a practical use for O18 (oxygen containing 10 neutrons)?
It allows researchers a way to test if plants release oxygen from water or CO2.
When a C-C bond is oxidized to a C=O bond, which is a true statement about the electrons in the atoms?
The electrons are more likely to be found near the oxygen than the carbon atom.
The proteins of the electron transport chain are:
embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The purpose of the Calvin cycle is
to produce carbohydrates.
Overall, the equation for photosynthesis is: CO2 + H2O ---> C6H12O6 + O2.
____________ is oxidized and ____________ is reduced.
Water; carbon dioxide
What is a common theory explaining the evolution of two photosystems for photosynthesis in plants?
Horizontal gene transfer followed by endosymbiosis
Which of the following is true of cellular respiration?
Glucose is oxidized to CO2
During photosynthesis, for what does a plant use water?
Electrons
Autotrophs are thought of as __________while heterotrophs are thought of as _________.
producers; consumers
Which of the following best describes the electron transport chain?
Electrons are passed from one carrier to another, releasing a little energy at each step
As electrons pass through the electron transport chain during the light reactions of photosynthesis, for what is the captured energy used?
To generate a proton gradient.
Which of the following statements about the electron transport chain (ETC) is true?
As electrons move through the ETC, they are moving from a high free energy state to a lower free energy state.
Which of the following statements about photosynthesis is true?
The light reactions produce the energy rich compounds that are used to run the Calvin cycle
Which of the following does not occur during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
Carbon fixation
Which of the following is not directly necessary to run the Calvin cycle?
Oxygen
If an electron acceptor is not available for cellular respiration, what will happen to pyruvate?
It will enter into the fermentation pathway.
The pigment molecules responsible for photosynthesis are located in the
thylakoid membrane
Why is light required for the light reactions?
It energizes electrons in the reaction centers
What is a difference in the energy carriers used in plants vs animals?
Plants use NADPH and NADH while animals only use NADH.
Which of the following does not occur in cyclic electron flow?
Splitting of water
Which protein would you expect to find immediately ahead of the replication fork?
Helicase
A nucleotide substitution that changes the amino acid is a
missense mutation
The mutation that causes sickle cell disease in humans is
a missense mutation
In Avery et. al.'s experiment, which of the following is not one of their hypotheses?
The transforming factor is protein and DNA.
A mutation in a DNA molecule that led to a premature stop codon is called a
nonsense mutation
Which of the following is not a requirement for DNA replication?
Transport proteins
If there was defect in primase, what would be the consequence for DNA replication?
DNA polymerase could not synthesize either the lagging or leading strands.
Besides adding enzymes to digest RNA, DNA or protein as Avery did in his studies, what experiment was performed to support the hypothesis that DNA is the transforming factor?
Purified S DNA (pathogenic) could transform R cells (nonpathogenic).
Insertion of a single nucleotide base which changes everything downstream of the insertion is a
frameshift mutation
In experiments using T2 viruses to discern the genetic material, certain elements are radiolabeled. Which radiolabeled material in T2 viruses was found in bacteria?
32P
A mutation in a DNA molecule changed the normal codon GAG into a GAA codon. Both codons code for the same amino acid. This is an example of a
silent mutation
A spontaneous mutation usually originates as an error in
DNA replication
Lack of telomerase activity limits what?
...
True or false: all genes code for an RNA that is translated into protein?
false
Why are single-stranded binding proteins necessary for DNA replication?
They prevent the two parental strands from coming together again.
Which statement does not support the theory that RNA was the earliest information-storage molecule?
RNA can act as a transport molecule.
Which of the following is not directly needed for translation?
RNA polymerase
What is the function of telomerase in eukaryotic cells?
To extend the ends of the chromosomes so they don't shorten with each round of replication
In eukaryotes, what needs to occur before transcription begins?
1) Transcriptional activator proteins bind to enhancers.
2) RNA polymerase binds to the promoter region.
3) General transcription factors assemble at the promoter region.
What occurs at the P site of a ribosome?
It is where a growing polypeptide is found.
The strands in a double helix of DNA are:
antiparallel, complementary, held together via hydrogen bonds and wound around each other with 10 base pairs per turn
Which of the following is not a part of tRNAs?
Correctly paired A-T bases
What provides the necessary energy to power transcription?
High-energy phosphate bonds.
Which of the following is true of DNA?
A purine always forms a complementary base pair with a pyrimidine.
When non homologous chromosomes exchange parts, this is called
a reciprocal translocation
Which of the following is not a component of a ribosome?
Enzymes that add amino acids to an uncharged tRNA.
Copying error not caught by DNA polymerase can be corrected by
the DNA mismatch repair system
How many aminoacyl tRNA synthetases are there?
There is one for each amino acid that needs to be attached to a tRNA.
If a prokaryotic mRNA were placed in a Eukaryotic cell, why might it not be translated?
It would be missing the 5' cap.
Which statement about translation is false?
In eukaryotes, only one ribosome at a time translates the mRNA into a protein.
Which of the following is not a point mutation?
inversion
Which of the following point mutations would be most likely to affect protein function?
TAA to TGA
Cystic fibrosis is the consequence of
the deletion of one amino acid
The process of translation in prokaryotes can occur faster than in eukaryotes because
there isn't a nuclear envelope in prokaryotes.
When does DNA polymerase perform its proofreading function on mispaired nucleotides?
Before adding the next nucleotide in the chain
True or False. The entire mRNA is considered the coding region.
False
When the peptide bond is created between amino acid 1 and amino acid 2:
the amino group of amino acid 1 is joined to the carboxyl group of amino acid 2.
How many different types of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases are there?
20
Chromosomes in which the normal order of a block of genes is reversed contain
an inversion
True or false: Insertion of one nucleotide in a gene will lead to a frameshift mutation.
True
What was the conclusion from the Luria-Delbruck experiment?
Mutations are random and are selected for under various conditions
A point mutation that now codes for the wrong amino acid is called a:
missense mutation.
True or false: Generally speaking, a nucleotide substitution has less severe consequences than a nucleotide addition/deletion.
True
Which statement is true?
DNA damage can lead to mutation, but doesn't always
Translation in prokaryotes occurs in the ___________. Translation in eukaryotes occurs in the ___________.
cytosol; cytosol
What is the benefit to a cell when ATP transfers a phosphate group to a protein?
The protein is able to do work.
When methane is oxidized, where do the electrons move?
Away from the carbon atom.
Which statement about chemiosmosis is not true?
ATP is required for the protons to return to the matrix
Which statement about oxidative phosphorylation is not true?
In eukaryotes, it takes place in the mitochondria
Why is NADH considered to have reducing power?
It donates electrons to components of the electron transport chain.
Which of the following is not a true statement about lagging strand DNA synthesis?
Nucleotides are added to the lagging strand at the 5' end
RNA polymerase is similar to DNA polymerase in that
both enzymes make nucleic acids in the 5' ---> 3' direction
What is the main function of fermentation in animals?
To generate NAD+
Which of the following is not used by DNA polymerase during elongation?
DNA primer
If a pile of glucose burns, what happens?
The energy stored in glucose is released as heat.
When does a cell switch from cellular respiration to fermentation?
When electron acceptors required by the electron transport chain are not available.
During the light reactions of photosynthesis, in what chloroplast location (s) are are ATP and NADPH synthesized?
Both are synthesized in the stroma.
Which of the following proteins is not needed for initiation of replication?
Sliding clamp
Oxygen is a ____________ inhibitor of rubisco.
Competitive
During which phase of the Calvin cycle are both ATP and NADPH required?
Reduction
Which of the following is not true about gene transcription?
Initially a T is paired with an A base when RNA is made; RNA polymerase later exchanges T bases with U bases.
Which of the following is not needed for leading strand synthesis during DNA replication?
telomerase
Why is photorespiration wasteful for photosynthetic organisms?
It produces CO2 and consumes ATP
What is happening during carboxylation?
CO2 is added to RuBp by rubisco
The potential energy of ATP is stored in
the three phosphate groups.
During the regeneration phase, G3P is regenerated to
RuBp
Organisms that capture energy from sunlight are_________. Organisms that derive their energy from organic molecules are __________?
phototropohs; chemotrophs
Which of the following is a reducing agent in the overall reaction for photosynthesis?
H2O
Which of the following is not synthesized from a DNA template?
poly A tail
Which of the following is not true of the electron transport chain in cellular respiration?
There is a progressive increase in free energy as electrons are passed down the electron transport chain
Which statement about the electron transport chain is not true?
It operates simultaneously with fermentation
To make two molecules of PGA, how many CO2 molecules are required?
1
In Avery et. al.'s experiment, which of the following is not one of their hypotheses?
The transforming factor is protein and DNA.
Regarding photosynthesis, what product is made in non-cyclic electron flow that is not made in cyclic electron flow?
NADPH
Which of the following is not a true difference between DNA replication and transcription in eukaryotes?
Transcription uses ribonucleotides; replication only uses deoxyribonucleotides.
What are the substrates that rubisco has an affinity for?
CO2 and O2
Cellular Respiration occurs in which cell type?
Both plant and animal cells
What is another word for a silent mutation?
Synonomous
Which direction does DNA polymerase move along the parent strand during DNA replication ?
3' to 5'
The oxidation of glucose to pyruvate is a ___________reaction. The incorporation of acetyl CoA into fatty acids is a ______________reaction.
Catabolic; anabolic
Multiple rounds of duplication and divergence can give rise to a group of genes with related functions called a
gene family
Which statement about gene transcription is true?
Genes are transcribed in a regulated way.
Which of the following molecules contains the most potential energy?
NADH
Which statement about replication in bacteria is correct?
It occurs in a bidirectional manner.
For double-stranded DNA, which base ratio always equals 1?
(A+C)/(T+G)
Which of the following is not true of both mitochondria and chloroplasts?
The electron transport chain is located on the inner mitochondrial membrane and on the inner membrane of the chloroplast
Which of the following statements is not true of transcription?
AUG is the initiation codon for transcription
How does the photosynthetic reaction center differ from the chorophyll molecules in the antenna complex?
There is a loss of electrons in the reaction center and not the antenna complex.
In which part of the chloroplast is there a high concentration of protons?
Thylakoid lumen
Which of the following is not a component of ATP?
Nicotinamide
If a codon sequence in mRNA is 5'-AUC-3', what would be the sequence of the corresponding anticodon in the tRNA?
5'-GAU-3'
Which of the following accompanies the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA before the citric acid cycle?
Formation of CO2 and NADH
When electrons flow down the electron transport chain of mitochondria, which of the following changes occurs?
Protons are pumped into the intermembrane space
Given the following DNA sequence 5'- AACGTAGGCATA-3' , what is the corresponding RNA sequence that would be made during transcription?
5'-UAUGCCUACGUU-3'
Which of the following is not a part of eukaryotic mRNA processing?
Adding a 5' UTR
What does LEO say?
GER
Dicyclohexlylcarbodiimide (DCCD) is a chemical that prevents the flow of protons through ATP synthase. An animal cell treated with DCCD will die because
no ATP will be made by oxidative phosphorylation
Introns
are coded in the DNA
What does it mean to say CO2 becomes fixed?
It becomes bonded to an organic compound
How is transcription terminated?
A DNA sequence at the end of a gene encodes a termination signal.
If the reaction ATP ---> ADP + Pi generates -7.8 kcal/mole of energy, which of the following reactions can proceed if coupled to that reaction?
An endergonic reaction that has a ΔG of +5.8.
Hershey and Chase relied on what information when examining what is the viral genetic material?
Proteins contain S not P
DNA replication in eukaryotes occurs relatively quickly because
multiple origins of replication are used.
Why can't the Calvin cycle run if the light reactions don't occur?
Because the products of the light reactions are needed to run the Calvin cycle
How many G3P's are needed to generate a molecule of glucose?
2