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AP Human Geography Chapter 3 Key Issue 1 & 2
Terms in this set (26)
A permanent move to a new location. Migration is a form of mobility, which is a more general term covering all types of movements from one place to another.
Emmigration is migration FROM a location.
Immigration is migration TO a location.
The difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants. If the number of immigrants exceeds the number of emmigrants, the net migration is positive, and the region has net in-migration. If the number of emigrants exceeds the number of immigrants, the net migration is negative, and the region has net out-migration.
Wilbur Zelinsky identified this which consists of changes in a society comparable to those in the demographic trantition. The migration transition is a change in the migration pattern in a society that results from the social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
Three Objectives Sought by Migrants
economic reasons, political, and environmental factors.
Geography has no comprehensive theory of migration, although an outline of the migration "laws" written by nineteenth-century geographer E. G. Ravenstein is the basis for contemporary geographic migration studies. To understand where and why migration occurs, Ravenstein's "laws" can be organized into three groups: (1) the distance that migrants typically move (2) the reason migrants move (3) the charactersitics of migrants
A permanent move from one country to another is international migration.
Voluntary Migration implies that the migrant has chosen to move, especially for economic improvement.
Forced Migration means that the migrant has been compelled to move, especially by political or environmental factors.
A permanent move within the same country. Consistent with the distance-decay principle presented in Chapter 1, the farther away a place is located, the less likely that people will migrate to it. thus, internal migrants are much more numerous than international migrants.
Interregional Migration is movement from one region of a country to another. Historically the main type of interregional migration has been from rural to urban areas in search of jobs.
Intraregional Migrationis movement within one region. The main type of intraregional migration has been within urban areas, from older cities to newer suburbs.
Global Scale Migration
About 9% of the world's people are international migrants-that is, they currently live in countries other than the ones in which they were born. On a global scale the three largest flows of migrants are: (1) From Asia to Europe (2) From Asia to North America (3) From Latin American to North America. The global pattern reflects the importance of migration from developing countires to developed countries. Migrants from countries with relatively low incomes and high natural increase rates head for relatively wealthy countries where job prospects are brighter.
Three Main Eras of Immigration
(1) Colonial settlement in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Immigration to the American colonies and the newly independent United States came from two principal regions: EUROPE-2 million Europeans migrated to American colonies and the newly independent United States prior to 1820. Permanent English colonies established along the Atlantic Coast. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA-most of these people were forced to migrate to become slaves, during the eighteenth century about 400,000 Africans were shipped as slaves to the 13 colonies that later formed the United States. (2) Mass European immigration in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Migration from Europe the the United States peaked at several points during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: 1840s/50s IRELAND AND GERMANY-annual immigration jumped from 20,000 to more than 200,000. Three-fourths of all U.S. immigrants during those two decades were from Ireland and Germany. 1870s IRELAND AND GERMANY-Emigration from Ireland and Germany resumed following a temporary decline during the U.S. Civil War. 1880s SCANDINAVIA-Immigration increased to 500,000 per year. The Industrial Revolution had diffused to Scandinavia, triggering a rapid population increase. 1905-1914 SOUTHERN AND EASTERN EUROPE-Immigration to the United States reached 1 million. Two-thirds of all immigrants during this period came from Southern and Eastern Europe, especially Itay, Russia, and Austria-Hungary. The shift in the primary source of immigrants coincided with the diffusiong of the Industrial Revolution to Southern and Eastern Europe, along with rapid population growth. (3) Asian and Latin American immigration in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. ASIA-The leading sources of U.S. immigrants from Asia are China, Phillipenes, India and Vietnam. LATIN AMERICA-Nearly one-half million emigrate to the United States annually from Latin America, more than twice as many as during the nineteenth century.
Trail of Tears
The Indian Removal Act of 1830 allowed the United States army to remove five Indian tribes from their land in the southeastern United States and move them to Indian Territory (now the state of Oklahoma). The five removals opened up 100,000 square kilometers of land for whites to settle and relocated tribes to land that was too ry to sustain their traditional ways of obtaining food.
Brazil on Interregional Migration
Most Brazilians live in a string of large cities near the Atlantic Coast. To increase attractiveness to the interior, the government moved its capital from Rio de Janiero to the newly built city called Brasilia, situated 1,000 kilometers from the coast. This caused net out-migration from the Atlantic Coast and net in-migration to the inner parts of the country.
Percent of U.S. Population in Urban Areas
From 5% in 1800 to 50% in 1920 and 80% in 2010.
Why do most people move from rural to urban areas?
As with interregional migrants, most people who move from rural to urban areas seek economic advancement. They are pushed from rural areas by declining agricultural opportunities and are pulled to cities by the prospect to work in fctories or in service industries.
Relationship between Intraregional Migration, Developed Countries and Suburbs
Most intraregional migration in developed countries is from cities out to currounding suburbs. The population of mose cities in developed countries has declined since the mid twentieth century, while suburbs have grown rapidly. Nearly twice as many Americans migrate from cities to suburbs each year as migrate from suburbs to cities. Comparable patterns are found in Canada and Europe. Migration to suburbs does not coincide with jobs but becayse people are pulled to be a part of a suburban lifestyle.
Net Migration from urban to rural areas is called Counterurbanization. Counterurbanization results in part from very rapid expansion of suburbs. But most counterurbanization represents genuine migration from cities and suburbs to small towns and rural communities.
A push factor induces people to move out of their present location.
A pull factor induces people to move into a new location.
A refugee has been forced to migrate to another country to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights, or other disasters and cannot return for fear or persecution because of race, religion, nationality, membership of a social group, or political opinion.
Internationally Displaced Person
An IDP has been forced to migrate for similar political reasons as a refugee but has not migrated across an international border.
An asylum seeker is someone who has migrated to another country in the hope of being recognized as a refugee
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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