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Anatomy Chapter 11 Hormones

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Growth Hormone (gh)
released from: anterior pituitary

function: stimulated an increase in the size and division rate of body cells; enhances movement of amino acids across membranes

controlled by: growth hormone releasing hormone and growth hormone inhibiting hormone from hypothalamus
Thryoid-stimulating hormone (tsh)
released from: anterior pituitary

function:controls secretion of hormones from thyroid gland

controlled by: thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh) from hypothalamus
prolactin (prl)
released from: anterior pituitary

function: sustains milk production after birth

controlled by: secretion restrained by prolactin release, inhibiting hormone and stimulated by prolactin-releasing factor from hypothalamus
follice-stimulating (fsh)
released from: anterior pituitary

function: in females, responsible for development of egg-containing follices in ovaries and stimulates follicular cells to secrete estrogen; in males, stimulates production of sperm cells

controlled by: gonadotropin releasing hormone from hypothalamus
luteinizing hormone (lh)
released from: anterior pituitary

function: female, promotes release of mature egg follice from ovary; male, develop of interstitial cells, secretion of male androgens

controlled by: gonadotropin releasing hormone from hypothalamus
antidiuretic hormone (adh)
released from: posterior pituitary

function: causes kidneys to conserve water; in high concentration, increases blood pressure

controlled by: hypothalamus in response to changes in water concentration in body fluids
oxytocin (ot)
released from: posterior pituitary

function:contracts muscles in the uterine wall; contracts muscles associated with milk-secreting glands

controlled by: hypothalamus in response to stretching of uterine and vaginal walls and stimulation of breasts
thyroxin (t4)
released from: thyroid gland

function: increases rate of energy release from carbohydrates, increases rate of protein synthesis, accelerates growth, stimulates activity in nervous system

controlled by: thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh) from anterior pituitary gland
Triiodothyronine (T3)
released from: thyroid gland

function: same as T4, but 5 times more potent
(increases rate of energy release from carbohydrates, increases rate of protein synthesis, accelerates growth, stimulates activity in nervous system

controlled by: thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh) from anterior
calcitonin
released from: thyroid gland

function: lowers blood calcium & phosphate ion concentrations by inhibiting release of Ca+2 and PO4-3 ions from bones and by increasing excretion of these ions by kidneys

controlled by: blood calcium concentration
epinephrine (adrenaline)
released from: adrenal mudulla

function: Increases: heart rate, breathing rate, blood glucose levels, blood pressure and metabolic rate. Decreases: digestion and blood flow.

controlled by: sympathetic nervous system
norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
released from: adrenal medulla

function: increases heart rate, blood flow, metabolic rate, with little affect on blood sugar

controlled by: sympathetic nervous system
aldosterone
released from: adrenal cortex

function: helps regulate concentration of extracellular electrolytes by conserving Na+ ions and excreting K+ ions

controlled by: electrolyte concentration (in body fluids)
cortisol
released from: adrenal cortex

function: decreases protein synthesis, increases fatty acid release, stimulates glucose synthesis from noncarbohydrates

controlled by: hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
adreanl adrogens
released from: adrenal cortex

function: supplements sex hormones by gonads, can be converted into estrogen for females

controlled by: n/a
progesterone
released from: ovaries

function: promotes uterus change during reproductive cycle, mammary glands, helsp regular secretion gonadotropins from anterior pituitary

controlled by: anterior pituitary & hypothalamus
testosterone
released from: testicular interstitial cells (testes)

function: androgen; 13-15yrs old increases rapidly, enlargement of testes and accessory organs and secondary sex characteristics (hair, voice, skin, muscles, bones)

controlled by: anterior pituitary and hypothalamus
estrogen
released from: ovaries

function: stimulate enlargement of accessory organs (vagina, uterus, tubes, ovaries); help with secondary sexual characteristics (breasts, mammary glands); increase vasculariation of skin

controlled by: anterior pituitary and hypothalamus
insulin
released from: pancreas

function: stimulates liver to form glycogen from glucose, inhibits conversion of non carbohydrates into glucose, promotes facilitated diffusion of glucose across cell membrane; lowers blood sugar

controlled by: blood glucose levels (detected by pancreas)
glucagon
released from: pancreas

function: stimulated liver to break down glycogen and convert certain non-carbohydrates into glucose; raises blood sugar

controlled by: blood glucose levels (detected by pancreas)
melatonin
released from: pineal gland

function: sleep cycle (regulated body clock)

controlled by: light conditions (rods/cones in eye) retinal impulses
antagonistic hormones
glucagon and insulin (blood sugar levels)

parathyroid and calcitonin (blood calcium levels)