44 terms

Module 1 Review

Progress Test - Multiple Choice Questions
In its earliest days, psychology was defined as the:
a) science of mental life
b) study of conscious and unconscious activity
c) science of observable behavior
d) science of behavior and mental processes
Who would be most likely to agree with the statement, "Psychology should investigate only behaviors that can be observed"?
a. Wilhelm Wundt
b. Sigmund Freud
c. John B. Watson
d. William James
Today, psychology is defined as the:
a. science of mental phenomena
b. science of conscious and unconscious activity
c. science of behavior
d. science of behavior and mental processes
Who introduced the early school of structuralism?
a.Edward Titchener
b.Wilhelm Wundt
c.William James
d.Mary Whiton Calkins
Who wrote the early textbook Principles of
a. Wilhelm Wundt
b. Ivan Pavlov
c. Jean Piaget
d. William James
Psychologists who study the degree to which
genes influence our personality are working from the_____________ perspective.
a. behavioral
b. evolutionary
c. behavior genetics
d. neuroscience
Which of the following exemplifies the issue of the relative importance of nature and nurture on our behavior?
a. the issue of the relative influence of biology and experience on behavior
b. the issue of the relative influence of rewards and punishments on behavior
c. the debate as to the relative importance of
heredity and instinct in determining behavior
d. the debate as to whether mental processes area legitimate area of scientific study
The seventeenth-century philosopher who believed that the mind is blank at birth and that most knowledge comes though sensory experience is:
a. Plato
b. Aristotle
c. Descartes
d. Locke
9. Which seventeenth-century philosopher believed that some ideas are innate?
a. Aristotle
b. Plato
c. Descartes
d. Locke
Which psychological perspective emphasizes the interaction of the brain and body in behavior?
a. neuroscience
b. cognitive
c. behavioral
d. behavior genetics
A psychologist who explores how Asia and
North American definitions of attractiveness differ is working from the __________ perspective.
a. behavioral
b. evolutionary
c. cognitive
d. social-cultural
A psychologist who conducts experiments solely intended to build psychology's knowledge base is engaged in
a. basic research.
b. applied research.
c. industrial-organizational research.
d. clinical research.
Psychologists who study, assess, and treat troubled people are called
a. basic researchers.
b. applied psychologists.
c. clinical psychologists.
d. psychiatrists.
Today, psychology is a discipline that:
a. connects with a diversity of other fields.
b. is largely independent of other disciplines.
c. is focused primarily on basic research.
d. is focused primarily on applied research.
(Close-Up) In order, the sequence of steps in the SQ3R method is
a. survey, review, question, read, reflect.
b. review, question, survey, read, reflect.
c. question, review, survey, read, reflect.
d. survey, question, read, review, reflect.
Psychologists who study how brain activity is
linked to memory, perception, and other thought processes are called
a. humanistic psychologists.
b. psychiatrists.
c. clinical psychologists.
d. cognitive neuroscientists.
The first psychology laboratory was established by ___________ in the year ____________.
a. Wundt; 1879
b. James; 1890
c. Freud; 1900
d. Watson; 1913
Who would be most likely to agree with the statement, "Psychology is the science of mental life"?
a. Wilhelm Wundt
b. John Watson
c. Ivan Pavlov
d. virtually any American psychologist during the 1960s
In psychology, behavior is best defined as:
a. anything a person says, does, or feels.
b. any action we can observe and record.
c. any action, whether observable or not.
d. anything we can infer from a person's actions.
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are most closely associated with:
a. cognitive psychology.
b. behaviorism.
c. psychodynamic theory.
d. humanistic psychology.
In defining psychology, the text notes that psychology is most accurately described as a:
a. way of asking and answering questions.
b. field engaged in solving applied problems.
c. set of findings related to behavior and mental processes.
d. nonscientific approach to the study of mental disorders.
Two historical roots of psychology are the disciplines of:
a. philosophy and chemistry.
b. physiology and chemistry.
c. philosophy and biology.
d. philosophy and physics.
The Greek philosopher who believed that intelligence was inherited was:
a. Aristotle.
b. Plato.
c. Descartes.
d. Locke.
The way we encode, process, store, and retrieve information is the primary concern of the _________________ perspective.
a. neuroscience c. social-cultural
b. evolutionary d. cognitive
Which of the following individuals is also a physician?
a. clinical psychologist
b. experimental psychologist
c. psychiatrist
d. biological psychologist
Dr. Jones' research centers on the relationship between changes in our thinking over the life span and changes in moral reasoning. Dr. Jones is most likely a
a. clinical psychologist.
b. personality psychologist.
c. psychiatrist.
d. developmental psychologist.
Which subfield is most directly concerned with studying human behavior in the workplace?
a. clinical psychology
b. personality psychology
c. industrial-organizational psychology
d. psychiatry
Dr. Ernst explains behavior in terms of different situations. Dr. Ernst is working from the _____________ perspective.
a. behavioral c. social-cultural
b. evolutionary d. cognitive
Which perspective emphasizes the learning of observable responses?
a. behavioral
b. social-cultural
c. neuroscience
d. cognitive
A psychologist who studies how worker productivity might be increased by changing office layout is engaged ___________ research.
a. applied c. clinical
b. basic d. developmental
(Close-Up) A major principle underlying the SQ3R study method is that
a. people learn and remember material best when they actively process it.
b. many students overestimate their mastery of text and lecture material.
c. study time should be spaced over time rather than crammed into one session.
d. over-learning disrupts efficient retention.
The biopsychosocial approach emphasizes the importance of
a. different levels of analysis in exploring behavior and mental processes.
b. basic research over pure research.
c. pure research over basic research.
d. having a single academic perspective to guide research.
Jawan believes that psychologists should go back to using introspection as a research tool. This technique is based on
a. survey methodology.
b. experimentation.
c. self-examination of mental processes.
d. the study of observable behavior.
Dharma's term paper on the history of American psychology notes that
a. psychology began as the science of mental life.
b. from the 1920s into the 1960s, psychology was defined as the scientific study of observable behavior.
c. contemporary psychologists study both overt behavior and covert thoughts.
d. all of these statements are true.
Terrence wants to talk to a professional to help him cope with some academic challenges he's facing. You recommend that he contact a(n)
a. industrial-organizational psychologist.
b. developmental psychologist.
c. counseling psychologist.
d. psychiatrist.
Professor Gutierrez, who believes that human emotions are best understood as being jointly determined by heredity, learning, and the individual's social and cultural contexts, is evidently a proponent of the
a. psychodynamic perspective.
b. biopsychosocial approach.
c. evolutionary perspective.
d. neuroscience perspective.
The philosophical views of John Locke are to those of Rene Descartes as ____________ is to ______________.
a. nature; nurture
b. nurture; nature
c. rationality; irrationality
d. irrationality; rationality
During his presentation on the history of psychology, Sanjay notes that Darwin's theory led most directly to the development of the school of
a. structuralism. c. functionalism.
b. behaviorism. d. humanism.
In concluding her report on the "nature-nurture debate in contemporary psychology," Karen notes that
a. most psychologists believe that nature is a more important influence on the development of most human traits.
b. most psychologists believe that nurture is more influential.
c. the issue is more heatedly debated than ever before.
d. nurture works on what nature endows.
Dr. Waung investigates how a person's interpre-tation of a situation affects his or her reaction. Evidently, Dr. Waung is working from the ____________ perspective.
a. neuroscience c. cognitive
b. behavioral d. social-cultural
Dr. Aswad is studying people's enduring inner traits. Dr. Aswad is most likely a(n)
a. clinical psychologist.
b. psychiatrist.
c. personality psychologist.
d. industrial-organizational psychologist.
During a dinner conversation, a friend says that the cognitive and behavioral perspectives are quite similar. You disagree and point out that the cognitive perspective emphasizes ______________ whereas the behavioral perspective emphasizes ________________.
a. conscious processes; observable responses
b. unconscious processes; conscious processes
c. overt behaviors; covert behaviors
d. introspection; experimentation
Close-Up) Your roommate announces that her schedule permits her to devote three hours to studying for an upcoming quiz. You advise her to
a. spend most of her time reading and rereading the text material.
b. focus primarily on her lecture notes.
c. space study time over several short sessions.
d. cram for three hours just before the quiz.
(Close-Up) A fraternity brother rationalizes the fact that he spends very little time studying by saying that he "doesn't want to peak too soon and have the test material become stale." You tell him that
a. he is probably overestimating his knowledge of the material.
b. if he devotes extra time to studying, his retention of the material will be improved.
c. the more often students review material, the better their exam scores.
d. all of these statements are true.