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317 terms

Davi-Ellen Med Term Ch. 12 & 13 & 14

Medical Terminology Chapters 12 & 13 & 14
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Adenoids
Collections of lymph tissue in the nasopharynx
Alveolus
Air sac in the lung
Apex of the lung
Uppermost portion of the lung
Bronchioles
Smallest branches of the bronchi
Bronchus
Branch of the trachea that is a passageway into the airspaces of the lung
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Gas produced by the body to be expelled
Cilia
Thin hairs attached to the mucous membrane in the respiratory tract
Epiglottis
Lid-like piece of cartilage that covers the larynx
Hilum (of lung)
Midline region where bronchi, blood vessels and nerves enter and exit the lung
Larynx
Voicebox
Mediastinum
Region between the lungs in the chest cavity
Palatine Tonsil
One of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphoid tissue in the oropharynx
Parietal Pleura
Outer fold of pleura lying closest to the ribs and wall of thoracic cavity
Pulmonary Parenchyma
Essential cells of the lung
Trachea
Windpipe
Visceral Pleura
Inner fold of pleura lying closest to the lung tissue
adenoid/o
adenoids
alveol/o
alveolus, air sac
bronchi/o or bronchi/o
bronchial tube, bronchus
bronchiol/o
bronchiole, small bronchus
capn/o
carbon dioxide
coni/o
dust
cyan/o
blue
epiglott/o
epiglottis
larygn/o
larynx, voicebox
lob/o
lobe of the lung
mediastin/o
mediastinum
nas/o
nose
orth/o
straight, upright
ox/o
oxygen
pector/o
chest
pharyng/o
pharynx, throat
phon/o
voice
phren/o
diaphragm
pleur/o
pleura
pneum/o or pneumon/o
air, lung
pulmon/o
lung
rhin/o
nose
sinus/o
sinus, cavity
spir/o
breathing
tel/o
complete
thorac/o
chest
tonsil/o
tonsils
trache/o
trachea, windpipe
-ema
condition
-osmia
smell
-pnea
breathing
-ptysis
spitting
-sphyxia
pulse
-thorax
pleural cavity, chest
Auscultation
Listening to sounds within the body
Rales (crackles)
Abnormal crackling sounds heard during inspriation, fluid, blood or pus in the alveoli
Pleural Rub
Scratchy soun produced by the motion of inflammed pleural surfaces against each other
Sputum
Material expelled from the chest by coughing
Stridor
Strained or high-pitched whistling sounds when air if forced through a narrow space
Croup
Acute viral infection in infants, characterized by stridor, barking cough and obstruction of the layrnx
Diphtheria
Acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract by bacterium
Epitaxis
Nosebleed
Pertussis
Bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx and trachea caused by bacterium
Bronchiectasis
Chronic dilation of bronchus secondary to infection in lower lobes of the lung
Cystic Fibrosis
Inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick mucous secretions that do not drain normally
Atelectasis
Incomplete (atel/o) expansion (-ectasis) of alveoli; collapsed, functionless portion of lung
Emphysema
Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls
Pneumoconiosis
Abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, chronic inflammation/infection/bronchitis
Pneumonia
Acute inflammation and infection of alveoli
Pulmonary Abscess
A large collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs
Pulmonary Edema
Swelling and fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles
Pulmonary Embolism (PE)
Clot or other material lodges in lung vessels
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lung
Sarcoidosis
Chronic inflammatory disease in which nodules or tubercles develop in the lungs, lymph nodes and other organs
Tuberculosis (TB)
Infectious disease cause by bacteria
Mesothelioma
Rare malignant tumor in the pleura related to asbestos
Pleural Effusion
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
Pleurisy (pleuritis)
Inflammation of the pleura
Pneumothorax
Collection of air in the pleural space
Anthracosis
Coal dust accumulation in the lungs
Asbestosis
Asbestos particles accumulate in the lungs
Bacilli
Rod-shaped bacteria (TB)
Cor Pulmonale
Failure of the right side of the heart to pump enough blood to the lungs
Exudate
Fluid, cells or other substances that slowly leave cells or capillaries through pores or small breaks in cell membranes
Hydrothorax
Collection of fluid in the pleural cavity
Paroxysmal
Pertaining to sudden occurrence, like spasms (-oxysmal means sudden)
Purulent
Containing pus
Rhonchi
Coarse, loud rales caused by secretions in bronchial tubes
Silicosis
Silica or glass dust in the lungs
ABGs
Arterial Blood Gases
AFB
Acid-fast Bacillus (TB organism)
ARDS
Adult (or acute) Respiratory Distress Syndrome
BAL
Bronchial Aveolar Lavage
Bronch
Bronchoscopy
COPD
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
CPAP
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
CPR
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
CTA
Clear to Auscultation
CXR
Chest x-ray
DLco
Diffusion in Capacity of the Lung for Carbon Monoxide
DOE
Dyspnea on Exersion
DPI
Dry Powder Inhaler
DPT
Diphteria, Pertussis, Tetanus (infants injection immunity)
FEV1
Forced Expirations Volume in first second
FVC
Forced Vital Capacity
ICU
Intensive Care Unit
LLL
Left Lower Lobe
LUL
Left Upper Lobe
MDI
Metered-Dose Inhaler
NIV
Noninvasive Ventilation
NSCLC
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
OSA
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Paco2
Carbon Dioxide partial pressure
Pao2
Oxygen partial pressure
PCP
Pneumocytosis Carinii pneumonia (patients with AIDS)
PE
Pulmonary Embolism
PEEP
Positive End Expiratory Pressure
PFTs
Pulmonary Function Tests
PPD
Purified Protein Derivative
RDS
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
RLL
Right Lower lobe
RSV
Respiratory Synctial Virus
RUL
Right Upper Lobe
SCLC
Small Cell Lung Cancer
SIMV
Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation
SOB
Shortness of Breath
TB
Tuberculosis
TLC
Total Lung Capacity
URI
Upper Respiratory Infection
VAP
Ventilation-Associated Pneumonia
VATS
Video-Assisted Thorascopy
V/Q Scan
Ventilation-Perfussion Scan
Albumin
Protein in blood, maintains water level
Antibody
Protein produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria
Antigen
Foreign substance that stimulates antibody production
Basophil
Granulocytic white blood cell with granules that stain blue when exposed to dye
Colony-Stimulating Factor (CSF)
Protein that stimulates the growth of white blood cells
Eosinophil
Granulocytic white blood cells that stain red when exposed to dye
Erythrocyte
Red blood cell
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Hormone secreted by kidneys to stimulate red blood cell production
Fibrin
Protein threads, basis of a blood clot
Fibrinogen
Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in clotting process
Granulocyte
White blood cell with numerous dark staining granules
Heme
Iron-containing nonprotein portion of hemoglobin
Hemoglobin
Blood protein containing iron, carries oxygen
Hemolysis
Destruction of blood (red blood)
Heparin
Anticoagulant in blood and tissues
Immunoglobin
Protein with antibody activity
Leukocyte
White Blood cell
Lymphocyte
Mononuclear leukocyte that produces antibodies
Macrophage
Monocyte that migrates from blood to tissue spaces
Megakaryocyte
Large platelet precurser cell formed in bone marrow
Mononuclear
Pertaining to a cell (leukocyte) with a single nucleus
Neutrophil
Granulocytic Leukocyte formed in bone marrow
Plasmapheresis
Removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge, then retransfused into the donor
Platelet
Smallest blood cell (thrombocyte)
Prothrombin
Plasma protein, converted to thrombin during clotting process
Reticulocyte
Immature erythrocyte with strand networks seen after dyes
Rh Factor
Antigen on red blood cells of Rh-positive individuals
Thrombin
Enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin during coagulation
Thrombocyte
Platelet
bas/o
base (opposite of acid)
chrom/o
color
coagul/o
clotting
cyt/o
cell
eosin/o
red, dawn, rosy
erythr/o
red
hem/o
blood
granul/o
granules
hemat/o
blood
hemoglobin/o
hemoglobin
is/o
same, equal
kary/o
nucleus
leuk/o
white
mon/o
one, single
morph/o
shape, form
myel/o
bone marrow
neutr/o
neutral (not base or acid)
nucle/o
nucleus
phag/o
eat, swallow
poikil/o
varied, irregular
sider/o
iron
spher/o
globe, round
thromb/o
clot
-apheresis
removal, carry away
-blast
immature, embryonic
-cytosis
abnormal condition of cells
-emia
blood condition
-globin
protein
-globulin
protein
-lytic
pertaining to destruction
-oid
derived from
-osis
abnormal condition
-penia
deficiency
-phage
eat, swallow
-philia
attraction for
-phoresis
carrying, transmission
-poiesis
formation
-stasis
stop, control
Anemia
deficiency in hemoglobin or erythrocytes
Hemochromatosis
Excess iron deposits throughout the body
Polycythemia Vera
General increase in red blood cells
Hemophilia
Excessive bleeding, hereditary cause of lack of a protein for clotting
Purpura
Multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin
Leukemia
An increase in cancerous white blood cells
Granulocytosis
Abnormal increase in granulocytes in the blood
Mononucleosis
An infectious disease marked by increased leukocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes
Multiple Myeloma
Malignant neoplasm of bone marrow
Antiglobulin test (Coombs test)
Test for presence of antibodies that coat and damage erythrocytes
Bleeding time
Time required for blood to stop flowing
Coagulation time
Time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube
Complete blood count
determination of the red/white cells, platelets etc
Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate
Speed at which erythrocytes settle out of plasma
Hematocrit
Percentage of erythrocytes in a volume of blood
Hemoglobin test
Total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of peripheral blood
Partial Thromboplastin time
Measures the presence of plasma factors that act in a portion of the coagulation pathway
Platelet count
Number of platelets per cubic millimeter
Prothrombin time
Test of the ability of blood to clot
Apheresis
Separation of blood into component parts and removal of select parts
Hemapoietic Stem Cell Transplant
Peripheral stem cell from a compatible donor are administered into a recipients vein
ABO
three main blood types
ALL
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
AML
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
ASCT
Autologous Stem Cell Transplant
baso
basophils
BMT
Bone Marrow Transplant
CBC
Complete Blood Count
CLL
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
DIC
Disseminated Myelogenous Leukemia
diff.
Differential count (white cells)
EBV
Epstein-Barr virus
eos
Eosinophils
EPO
Erythropoietin
ESR
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
G-CSF
Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
GM-CSF
Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
g/dL
Gram per deciliter (one tenth of a liter)
GVHD
Graft Versus Host Disease
Hct
Hematocrit
H, Hg, HGB
Hemoglobin
H and H
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit
HLA
Human Leukocyte Antigen
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
Immunoglobulins
lymphs
Lymphocytes
MCH
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin, avg amount of hemoglobin per cell
MCHC
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration, avg concentration of hemoglobin in a single red cell
MCV
Mean Corpuscular Volume, avg size or volume of a red cell
mm3
cubic millimeter
mono
monocyte
poly, PMN, PMNL
Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte, neutrophil
PT
Prothrombin time
PTT
Partial Thromboplastin time
RBC
Red Blood Cell
sed rate
Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate
segs
Segmented, mature white blood cells
SMAC
Sequencial Multiple Analyzer Computer (automated chemistry system)
ul
microliter
WBC
White Blood Cell
B Cell
Lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow, transforms into a plasma cell to secrete antibodies
Cytokine
Protein that aids cells to destroy antigens
Cytotoxic Cell
T-cell lymphocyte that directly kills foreign cells
Dendritic Cell
Cell that captures antigens and presents them to T Cell
Helper T Cell
Lymphotcyte that aids B Cell into recognizing antigens and stimuating antibody production
Humoral Immunity
Immune response in which B Cells transform into plasma cells and secrete antibodies
Immuniglobins
Antibodies that are secreted by plasma cells in humoral immunity
Interferons
Antiviral proteins (cytokines) secreted by T cells
Interleukins
Proteins that stimulate growth of B or T cell lymphocytes and activate a specific immune response
Interstitial Fluid
Fluid between the spaces between cells
Lymph
Thin, watery fluid found within lymphatic vessels and collected from body tissues
Lymphoid organs
Lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland
Lymph node
Stationary lymph tissue along blood vessels
Macrophage
Large phagocyte found in lymph nodes and other tissues
Monoclonal Antibody
An antibody produced in a laboratory to attack antigens
Natural Killer (NK) Cell
Lymphocyte that recognizes and destroys foreign cells by releasing cytotoxins
Plasma Cell
lymphoid cell that secretes an antibody and originates from B Cells
Spleen
Organ near the stomach that produces, stores and eliminates cells
Suppressor T Cell
Lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T Cell lymphocytes
T cell
Lymphocyte formed in the thymus gland, acts directly on antigens to destroy them
Thymus Gland
Organ in the mediastinum that produces T Cells
Tonsils
Masses of lymph tissue at the back of the oropharynx
immun/o
protection
lymph/o
lymph
lymphaden/o
lymph node (gland)
Splen/o
Spleen
Thym/o
Thymus gland
tox/o
poison
ana-
again, anew
inter-
between
Anaphylaxis
Exaggerated or unusual hypersensitivity to foreign protein or other substance
Atopy
Hypersensitive or allergic state involving an inherited predisposition
CD4 + Lymphocytes
Helper T Cells that carry CD4+ protein antigen on their surface, HIV binds to CD4+ and kills T Cells with it
Hodgkin Disease
Malignant tumor of lymph tissue in the spleen and lymph nodes
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Virus that causes AIDS
Kaposi Sarcoma
Malignant condition associated with AIDS
non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Group of malignant tumors involving lymphoid tissue
Protease Inhibitor
Drug that treats AIDS by blocking production of protease
Retrovirus
RNA virus that makes copies of itself by using the host cell DNA
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor
Drug that treats AIDS by blocking reverse transcriptase
ELISA Test
Test to detect anti-HIV antibodies
Immunoelectrophoresis
Test that separates immunoglobins
AIDS
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
CD4+
Protein on T-cell Helper lymphocyte that gets infected with HIV in AIDS
CMV
Cytomegalovirus (causes opportunistic infection)
Crypto
Cryptococcus
G-CSF
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
GM-CSF
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor
HAART
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
HD
Hodgkin Disease
Histo
Histoplasmosis
HSV
Herpes Simplex Virus
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
Immunoglobins
KS
Kaposi Sarcoma
MAI
Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare
MOAB
Monoclonal Antibody
NHL
non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
NK Cell
Natural Killer Cell
PCP
Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia
RTIs
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
T4
T-Cell Lymphocyte that is detroyed by the AIDS virus
T8
T-cell Lymphocyte
Toxo
Toxoplasmosis