Terms in this set (24)
Enzyme that assembles nucleotides into a new DNA strand
DNA Polymerase I
DNA repair and some replication. Highest concentration
DNA Polymerase II
DNA repair. Middle concentration
Have 3'-5' exonuclease; proofreading ability - keeps mutation rate below a certain level. Can only polymerize in a 5'-3' direction. Can only add nucleotides to an existing strand; can't start a new DNA strand
DNA Polymerase III
Holoenzyme, dimer of the core polymerase. Adds DNA nucleotides on to the end of the 3' primer. Majority of DNA replication. Lowest concentration
DNA Polymerase III holoenzyme + other enzymes and accessory molecules.
Circular enzyme that uses ATP to pry open DNA strands
Replicates/synthesizes the start of a new strand, the primer. Uses RNA in a 3'-5' way
DNA Polymerase I
Removes primer and lays new DNA.
Supplies final phosphodiester bond that seals the new strands together.
Enzyme used in embryonic cells to maintain chromosome length. Uses its own RNA as a template.
Polymerizes from a ssDNA template in the 5'-3' direction. No primer needed and no exonuclease activity.
Starts from the 1st nucleotide that RNA will be complementary to and goes all the way down
Beyond RNA-coding region where RNA polymerase falls off.
RNA polymerase I
Produces rRNA in the nucleolus
RNA polymerase II
Produces nRNA and snRNA in the nucleoplasm
RNA polymerase III
Produces 5S rRNA and tRNA in the nucleoplasm
Adds 50-250 A's when mRNA is processed; 3' poly-A tail
Excising introns from pre-mRNA and rejoining exons.
Made up of snRNA, which bind to small nuclear proteins to make the sNRPs
RNA of only 1 repeating nucleotide
Each codon designates only ONE amino acid
One amino acid is often specified by more than 1 codon.
Relaxed base pairing at 3rd codon position - can withstand a little mismatch
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