80 terms

Global Politics: DEFINITIONS

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Power
The ability of one global actor to influence the actions of another global actor
Non Government Organisations
Specialised organisations, agencies and groups commited to promoting a range of issues, such as protection of the environment, ending human rights abuses or promoting the status of women
Globalisation
The acceleration and intensification of exchanges of goods, services, labour and capital which promote global interdependence
State
Traditionally the central actors in international relations, states posses a permanent population, defined territory and recognised sovereignty
Nation
Groups of people claiming common bonds based on culture, language and history
Nation-state
Political social grouping in which people within territorial boundaries, with recognised sovereignty, have common bonds based on culture, language and history
Soveriegnty
A legitimate or widely- recognised ability to apply effective control of a territory within recognised borders
Economic sovereignty
The power of national governments to make decisions independently of those made by other governments with regards to their economy
Transnational corporation
A company whose operations and investments extend beyond the boundaries of the state in which it is registered. Also referred to as a multi-national corporation
Cultural sovereignty
The power of national governments to make decisions independently to protect and develpo the state's national cultural expression
Third-Agenda issues
Issues which affect a number of states at any one time and so require a joint action action to be resolved. Examples include, global warming, migration and terrorism
Terrorism
The threatened or actual use of violence to achieve politcal objectives
Convention
A set of agreed or generally accepted standards or norms governing behaviour and interaction betweeen global actors
Crimes against humanity
Defined by the Nuremburg trials to include murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation and other inhuman acts against the civilian population during war time
National interest
Outlines the goals and objectives of foreign policy and is used as an all-embracing concept to justify policy preferences and actions
Internationalism
Emphasises the similarities and links between people. Stresses a common humanity beyond national boundaries and promotes the need for cooperative solutions to common challenges
GDP
Gross Domestic Product
Calculated by measuring the total value of all goods and services produced annually by a society domestically
Global Governance
Institutions, rules, norms and legal arrangementsthat seek to facilitate cooperation and manage relations between states. carried out by both government organisations ie UN and non-gov oranisations ICC
Failed state
A state that has collapsed and that cannot provide for the basic needs of its citizens
Sovereignty
A legitimate or widely-recognised ability to apply effective control of a territory within recognised borders. It's the primary organising principle of global politics which provides states witht the authority to represent their territorial entity within the international community. State sovereignty can be challanged internally ( for example by secessionist groups) or externally ( for example, one state invades another).
Trade
Exchange of goods and services between global actors
Developed world
States that have a high level of development, predominately measured in economic terms
Human rights
Rights that are afforded to all human beings universally on the basis of their common humanity. Rights are restricted as much by what is necessary to secure comparable rights of others as the right of any particular individual.
Developing World
States with low levels of economic wealth
Infant mortality rate
The number of infants who die before their first birthday, per 1000
GDP per capita
Gross domestic product per capita is a measure of a states economic output. Calculated by dividing the states GDP by the total population
Failed Statethe
A State that has collapsed and that cannot provide for the basic needs of citizens
Global Governance
Legal arrangements, institutions, rules and norms ( LIRN), that seek to facilitate cooperation and manage relations between states. Governance is carried out by both governmental organisations such as the United Nations and non-governmental organisations such as the International Criminal Court.
Inter-Governmental Organisations
An institution of global governance which are primarily made up of sovereign states: e.g. UN
Collective security
Security arrangements in which states agree to a see a security threat to one member as a threat to all members
International Cooperation
When global actors work together to achieve common ideals and goals
Intervention
Refers to external actions taken that are aimed to influence the domestic affaires of a state.
Poverty
Situation in which people are not able to satisfy their basic needs leading to lack of food, clean water and sanitation. Predominatly viewed in economic terms
Disarmement
Disarmament is the act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons
Aid
The transfer of goods and services between international actors on a concessionary basis. Aid occurs on a bilateral, mvel from both gultilateral leovernments and the private sector and covers both grants and loans. Aid may be given without strings or may be attached in some way by the donor. Aid can be given for humanitarian reasons or may have overt political and economic connotations. It is often used as a means to alleviate short term problems or may be a part of a long term stategy for development.
development
Often measured in terms of increases in Gross National Product ( GNP) between states. A state is developing if its GNP is increasing. It is in itself a controversial term seemingly prioritising the acquisition of wealth over political liberties, human rights and the environment and as a result, preferance is now placed on ' sustainable development'. Traditionally it does not take into account disparities of wealth that can occur as a result of development.
Concessional Loans
Typically these carry low to no interest and are to be paid back over a longer period
Treaty
A written contract or agreement, considered binding in international law, between two or more global actors. Parties to treaties are usually states or international organisations
Non-discrimination
A trading principle which believes that economic welfare is greatest if policies do not discriminate amougnst the suppliers and demanders of goods and services
Trade liberalisation
A movement towards free trade, both in the reduction and elimination of tariffs and a removal of non -tarrifs barriers such as quotas
Diplomacy
Entire process in which states conduct their foreign relations with another. It is a means for the states to cooperate and by whoch they resolve conflicts without force. It is an instrument of foreign policy most recognisable through the establishment of embassies and the work of ambassadors, ministers and envoys. A vechile through which states asserts itself and means which it seeks to achieve its national interests. Ocurs on bilateral and multilateral levels.
Citizenship
The state of being a citizen of a particular social, political or national community. A citizen enjoys the priveleges and rights accorded by the state, as well as the obligations, such as jury service. Moves towards transnational political communities have raised the possibility of global citizenship, where individuals loyalties to the state are transformed to a global society on the basis of univeral moral principles.
Justice
Concept of moral rightness based on ethics, law, fairness and equity that, importantly, also seeks punishment when said ethics are breached. Extends to global politcs through international systems of justice, such as the International Criminal Court and International Court of Justice, which seek to uphold international law and deter future violations.
Unilateralism
A policy of acting alone, with little regard for the views or interests of other global actors, in pursuit of foreign policy objectives.
Proliferation
Most commonly used in global politics in reference to the spread of weapons. This can occur horizontally ( increase in the number of actors with said weapon) and vertically ( increases in the number of said weapon)
Utility of Violence
Violence employed as a means of achieving ones political objectives, commonly witnessed in global politics through interstate war. Violence is purposful and organised. Traditionally percieved as an instrument of state power, violence and threatened acts of violence are increasingly utilised by terrorist groups as a means of achieving their objectives.
Caliphate
System of government representing the political unity of the Islamic community
Gross national Product
The total value of all goods and services produced by citizens of a state in one year
Trade barriers
Artifical obstacles to trade, most commonly imposed by governments to protect their economies and local producers, for example: subsidies, quotas and tarrifs
Foreign Direct Investment
The transfer of capital, labour, knowledge and technology from one state to another with the aim of obtaining income-generating assests
Global Actor
refers to any social structure, which is able to act and influence the global or international system
Non-state actor
Non-state actors are categorized as entities that (i) participating or acting in the sphere of international relations; organizations with sufficient power to influence and cause change in politics which are (ii) not belonging to or existing as a state-structure or established institution of a state; are not holding the characteristics of this,these being legal sovereignty and some measure of control over a countries people and territories
Global Politics
Global politics is the discipline that studies the political and economical patterns of the world and relationships between global actos
Regional grouing
international organizations that operationally transcend a single nation state with membership is characterized by boundaries and demarcations characteristic to a defined and unique geography, such as continents, or geopolitics, such as economic blocks.
Arms Control
Exercise of restraint in the acquisition, deployment and
use of weapons. Underlying assumption of arms control
is that weapons are a continuing and persistent feature of
the interaction between states. Seeks to regulate the use
of arms and, therefore, the actions of states.
Crisis Diplomacy
Negotiations between actors in the global political arena
in response to crisis, most commonly concerning confl icts
and natural disasters, but also economic and health crises.
democratization
Processes associated with the spread of democracy around the world.
Environmentalism
Political, social and philosophical ideology that seeks to precent human-induced environmental degradation whilst seeking to improve the state of the environment, often through coservation. Major influence in global politics
Ethics
Seeks to address questions of morality. This extends to
global politics on the basis that a common humanity binds
all human beings beyond individuals in states to the world
as a whole, thus necessitating certain actions.
hard power
Power exercised through coercion, or threatened acts of
coercion, to infl uence the actions of other global actors.
Most commonly exercised via military forms.
idealism
School of thought in which foreign policy is infl uenced
above all else by moral principle, as opposed to practical
and pragmatic considerations.
International Community
An entity that makes decisions and takes action for
the benefi t of all countries and peoples on the basis
of common duties and obligations between states,
their citizens and other global actors. Most commonly
used in the context of taking action against repressive
regimes or upholding human rights. The extent to which a
functioning and effective international community exists is
contentious.
International Society
Notion of a 'society of states' in which law, order and
cooperation are the basis of interaction, and that states
work towards achieving common ideals and goals. The
extent to which a functioning and an effective international
society exists is contentious.
Multilateralism
System of coordinating relations between three or more
states, usually in pursuit of objectives in particular areas.
Pragmatism
School of thought in which foreign policy is infl uenced
above all else by practical and pragmatic considerations,
as opposed to moral principles
Propoganda
Form of communication aimed at infl uencing the attitude
and perspective of the international community toward
some cause or position by presenting a one-sided
perspective. Can be used as an instrument of power to
infl uence the actions of other actors.
Soft Power
The ability to shape the actions of other global actors most
commonly exercised through diplomacy, culture, policies
and history. A term fi rst coined by Joseph Nye.
Sustainability
Most commonly used in relation to development policies,
sustainability seeks to organise states and their economies
so that current needs are met whilst not jeopardising
meeting these needs in the future. Advocates for
maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity as well as the
sustainable use of resources.
Military Power
The use of a state's armed forces and military equipment in order to influence the actions of another global actor
Diplomatic Power
The ability to influence the actions of other global actors through discussion and negotiation
Political Power
The ability to influence the actions of other global actors through domestic policy and legislation and the nature of one's political system.
Cultural Power
The use of one's identity, forged through history and projected in the media and artistic representations, to shape the actions of other actors. Seeks to create a positive reception of a state's culture and vis-à-vis its ideas and agenda
Economic Power
The use of money and resources to exert influence over other global actors
International Law
The body of law that governs the legal relations between or among states or nations
Intervetion
External actions taken that are aimed to influence the domestic afffairs of a state
Anti-Terrorism
Actions taken by diplomatic, law enforcement and intelligence agencies to apprehend or thwart attacks
Friedman's Golden Arches theory of conflict prevention
states with strong economic ties are less likely to go to war as they have tootmuch to lose. This a state that develops according to Washington Consenus principles and opens its borders for trading is less likely to experience conflict
FIve basic social values states must uphold
JACKSON AND SORENSON
1) Security
2) Freedom
3) Order
4) Justics
5) Welfare
(start f*cking other jocks weekly)
Occupation
Military occupation is effective provisional control[1] of a certain power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign.[2][3][4] The intended temporary nature of occupation, when no claim for permanent sovereignty is made by the occupying entity, distinguishes occupation from both colonialism or annexation
Peacekeeping
the active maintenance of a truce between nations or communities, especially by an international military force
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