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Psychology 1 Final

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Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding.
increase; increase
Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of
shaping
B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called
the law of effect.
The occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that during extinction
the CR is suppressed
Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
CS; US
If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a(n)
conditioned stimulus
In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
the presentation of food in the dog's mouth
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a(n)
neutral stimulus.
In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of
observational learning.
Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for
observational learning.
Retinal disparity is an important cue for
perceiving distance.
Because the two teams wore different-colored uniforms, Cheri perceived the 10 basketball players as two distinct groups. This best illustrates the principle of
similarity
The organizational rules identified by Gestalt psychologists illustrate that
the perceived whole differs from the sum of its parts.
Figure is to ground as ________ is to ________.
a white cloud; blue sky
Infants who were exposed to the visual cliff
refused to cross over the "deep" side to their mothers.
The surface of the basilar membrane is lined with
hair cells.
Long sound waves are to short sound waves as a ________ voice is to a ________ voice
bass; soprano
Which receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light?
cones
A subliminal message is one that is presented
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________.
detection; interpretation
Harmful chemicals or viruses that can be transferred from a mother to her developing fetus are called
teratogens.
A teratogen is a(n)
substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child.
Sleep apnea is a disorder involving
temporary cessations of breathing during sleep.
Nightmares are to ________ as night terrors are to
REM sleep; Stage 4 sleep
A split in consciousness in which some thoughts occur simultaneously with and yet separately from other thoughts is called
dissociation.
During Piaget's sensorimotor stage, children acquire a
sense of object permanence
The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects is called
conservation.
Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a
concept of conservation.
Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates ________ morality.
postconventional
Hypnagogic sensations are most closely associated with ________ sleep.
Stage 1
According to Erikson, trust is to infancy as identity is to
adolescence.
Fred has no meaningful occupational goals and has switched college majors several times. Erikson would have suggested that Fred lacks
identity.
Charles Darwin suggested that the evolution of living organisms is guided by
natural selection
Evolutionary psychologists attribute the human tendency to fear snakes and heights to
genetic predispositions.
The rhythmic bursts of brain activity that occur during Stage 2 sleep are called
sleep spindles.
According to Erikson, committing oneself to meaningful social roles would be most indicative of the achievement of
identity.
During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as a(n)
zygote and finally develops into a fetus. (Zygote, Embryo, Fetus) ZEF
According to Kohlberg, morality based on a desire to uphold the laws of society is characteristic of the ________ stage.
conventional
While reading a novel, Raoul isn't easily distracted by the sounds of the TV or even by his brothers' loud arguments. This best illustrates
selective attention
Stage 2 sleep is to ________ as Stage 4 sleep is to ________.
sleep spindles; delta waves
The process of imprinting involves the formation of a(n)
attachment
One variation in the autism spectrum is characterized by normal intelligence, often accompanied by exceptional skill in a particular area, but deficient social and communication skills. This disorder is called
Asperger syndrome
The "rooting reflex" refers to a baby's tendency to
open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek.
Newborns have been observed to show the greatest visual interest in a
facelike image
Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to
secure attachment.
The body structures that enable reproduction are the
primary sex characteristics.
Unlike ducklings, children do not imprint. Their fondness for certain people, however, is fostered by
mere exposure.
According to Erikson, later adulthood is to integrity as young adulthood is to
intimacy.
Infants accustomed to a puppet jumping three times on stage show surprise if the puppet jumps only twice. This suggests that Piaget
underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants
The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development
formal operational
Abner, a 70-year-old retired teacher, feels that his life has not been of any real value or significance. According to Erikson, Abner has failed to achieve a sense of
integrity
Preconventional morality is to postconventional morality as ________ is to ________.
self-interest; ethical principles
Men and women are most likely to differ in their
aggressiveness
Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ________ changes throughout the human life cycle.
social
Older people's capacity to learn and remember meaningful material does not decline as much as their capacity to learn and remember meaningless material. This best illustrates the value of
crystallized intelligence.
Nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as the deepened male voice and male facial hair are called
secondary sex characteristics.
When people with autism watch another person's hand movements, they display less ________ than most others.
mirror neuron activity
Piaget claimed that children understand the world primarily by observing the effects of their own actions on other people, objects, and events during the ________ stage.
sensorimotor
Recognizing whether someone's facial expression is conveying a happy smile or a self-satisfied smirk is especially difficult for those with
autism.
When teased by his older sister, 9-year-old Waldo does not cry because he has learned that boys are not expected to. Waldo's behavior best illustrates the importance of
gender roles.
Kristen is a normal, healthy newborn. Research indicates that
she has most of the brain cells she is ever going to have.
Physical abilities such as muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output reach their peak during
early adulthood.
Infant novelty preferences have been discovered by assessing infants'
habituation.
According to Erikson, infancy is to trust as adolescence is to
identity.
Two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they
impose rules and expect obedience.
According to Piaget, children in the preoperational stage are able to
represent objects with words and images.
Humanlike features start to develop around 9 weeks after conception. What is the developing human called at this point in development?
fetus
Which of the following terms refers to a person's ability to reason speedily and abstractly?
fluid intelligence
Biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience and that enable orderly changes in behavior are referred to as
maturation.
Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child
develops through a series of stages
Aerobic exercise programs during late adulthood stimulate improvement in
memory
The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called
attachment
Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of ________ development
cognitive
Parents who make few demands on their children and use little punishment are
permissive.
The awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived is known as
object permanence.
Mrs. Pearson cut Judy's hot dog into eight pieces and Sylvia's into six pieces. Sylvia cried because she felt she wasn't getting as much hot dog as Judy. Piaget would say that Sylvia doesn't understand the principle of
conservation.
One of the three major concerns of developmental psychology centers around the issue of
continuity or stages.
A mother who is slow in responding to her infant's cries of distress is most likely to encourage
insecure attachment.
In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with a secure maternal attachment are most likely to
use their mothers as a base from which to explore the new surroundings.
Boys who mature at an early age tend to be more
popular and self-assured.
Who are likely to show the greatest similarity in temperament?
Ruth and Ramona, identical twins
Mary believes that cognitive development is a matter of gradual and almost imperceptible changes over time. Her viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of
continuity or stages.
According to Piaget, assimilation involves
interpreting new experiences in terms of one's current understanding.
According to Piaget, egocentrism is to conservation as the ________ stage is to the ________ stage.
preoperational; concrete operational
In recognizing the inaccuracies of one's own ethnic stereotypes and revising his or her beliefs, an individual most clearly illustrates the process of
accommodation.
According to Kohlberg, morality based on a desire to uphold the laws of society is characteristic of the ________ stage.
conventional
A stage hypnotist can best increase the hypnotizability of select audience members by first providing them with a
strong expectation that they will be hypnotically responsive.
The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every
90 minutes.
Since 1960, psychology has regained an interest in consciousness as psychologists of all persuasions affirmed the importance of
cognition.
After ingesting a small dose of a psychoactive drug, Laqueta experienced vivid visual hallucinations and felt as if she were separated from her own body. Laqueta most likely experienced the effects of
LSD.
Consciousness is to unconsciousness as ________ is to ________.
serial processing; parallel processing
One naturalistic observation of pedestrians found that half the people on cell phones exhibit unsafe road-crossing behavior. This illustrates the impact of
selective attention.
Physical pain and intense cravings indicate
physical dependence.
Shown the hollow face illusion, people will mistakenly perceive the inside of a mask as a protruding face. Yet, they will accurately reach into the inverted mask to flick off a buglike target stuck on the face. This best illustrates the capacity for
dual processing.
Which of the following is a psychedelic drug?
LSD
A bank teller was so distracted by the sight of a bank robber's weapon that she failed to perceive important features of the criminal's physical appearance. This best illustrates
selective attention.
The circadian rhythm is influenced by light-sensitive retinal proteins that trigger signals to the
suprachiasmatic nucleus
REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because
our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.
While a man provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door. The man's failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during this interruption illustrates
change blindness.
Which of the following is a common symptom of nicotine withdrawal?
anxiety
Which theory suggests that dreams are mental responses to random bursts of neural stimulation?
activation-synthesis theory
Stimulants ________ appetite and ________ self-confidence.
decrease; increase
Narcolepsy is a disorder involving
periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness.
Evidence suggests that we consolidate our memories of recent life events through
REM sleep.
Smokers with ________ levels of nicotine tolerance are likely to suffer the most severe withdrawal symptoms when they discontinue smoking.
high
After a stressful day at the office, Arthur has five or six drinks at a local bar before going home for dinner. Research suggests that Arthur's heavy drinking will have the most adverse effect on his ability to remember
the next day the names of the people he talked to and what he said while drinking.
Symptoms of drug withdrawal are likely to be
most severe among those with high levels of drug tolerance.
In large doses, alcohol is a ________; in small amounts, it is a ________.
depressant; depressant
A periodic, natural loss of consciousness that involves five distinct stages is known as
sleep.
Forty-year-old Lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably
would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep.
After sleeping for about an hour and a half, José enters a phase of paradoxical sleep. He is likely to
have very relaxed muscles.
University men were shown an erotic movie clip. Compared with those who thought they had recently consumed a nonalcoholic beverage, men who believed they had recently consumed an alcoholic beverage were
more likely to report having strong sexual fantasies and less likely to report having feelings of guilt.
While soundly asleep people cannot
learn tape-recorded messages to which they are repeatedly exposed.
After ingesting a small dose of a psychoactive drug, Laqueta experienced vivid visual hallucinations and felt as if she were separated from her own body. Laqueta most likely experienced the effects of
LSD.
Prior to age 9, children's dreams seem more like a slide show and less like an active story in which the dreamer is an actor. This best illustrates that the content of dreams reflects children's
cognitive development.
THC, the active ingredient in ________, is classified as a ________.
marijuana; hallucinogen
A split in consciousness in which some thoughts occur simultaneously with and yet separately from other thoughts is called
dissociation.
Boys who tend to be fearless and impulsive at age 6 are
more likely to smoke and more likely to drink alcohol as teens.
Research on susceptibility to hypnosis indicates that.
people who are highly responsive to hypnotic suggestion tend to become absorbed in the imaginary events of a novel or a movie.
The divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis receives support from evidence that
people who are highly responsive to hypnotic suggestion tend to become absorbed in the imaginary events of a novel or a movie.
Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with
REM sleep.
One biological basis for addiction involves brain activity in the ________ reward system.
dopamine
Repeated use of an opiate
decreases the brain's production of endorphins.
U.S. sixth graders ________ their friends' use of marijuana, and university students ________ their fellow students' enthusiasm for alcohol.
overestimate; overestimate
The cocktail party effect provides an example of
selective attention.
François was dismayed to discover that some of his football teammates were using drugs to enhance their footwork and endurance on the playing field. Which of the following drugs were the players most likely using?
amphetamines
By decreasing REM sleep, alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory. This disruption occurs because REM sleep
helps fix the day's experiences into permanent memories.
Compared with unconscious information processing, conscious information processing is relatively
slow and especially effective for solving new problems.
When cocaine is snorted, free-based, or injected, it produces a rush of euphoria by
blocking the reuptake of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.
Which research method did Jean Piaget use extensively in the process of developing his well-known theory of development?
the case study
As scientists, psychologists adopt an attitude of skepticism because they believe that:
claims about human behavior need to be supported with evidence.
Mrs. Blair concludes that boys do not read as well as girls because the vast majority of students in her remedial reading classes are boys. Mrs. Blair's conclusion best illustrates the danger of:
generalizing from select cases.
Hypotheses are best described as:
predictions.
Because Julie thinks very highly of herself, she assumes that she is well regarded by most of her acquaintances. This conclusion best illustrates:
the false consensus effect.
In order to exercise maximum control over the factors they are interested in studying, researchers engage in:
experimentation.
If psychologists discovered that people who live at the poverty level have more aggressive children than do wealthy people, this would clearly indicate that:
people's economic status and the aggressiveness of their children are negatively correlated.
The perception of a relationship between two variables where none exists is called:
illusory correlation.
If psychologists were to find that we are especially attracted to people whose traits are different from our own, this discovery would likely seem obvious and unsurprising to college students because:
students, like everyone else, have a tendency to exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past discoveries.
Scientists who defend the use of animals in experimental research typically claim that:
the well-being of humans should be placed above the well-being of animals.
Which of the following techniques would be the most effective way of investigating the relationship between the political attitudes and the economic status of North Americans?
the survey
Which of the following statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which high school grades predict college grades?
correlation coefficient
Thinking that she had outperformed most of her classmates, Glenda was surprised to receive just an average grade on her psychology test. Glenda's experience best illustrates:
overconfidence
According to Professor Bolden, his experimental research demonstrates that eating an apple every day improves children's reading skills. How might he best offer further support for the dependability of this finding?
replication
Statistical tests are useful for making ________ regarding differences between groups.
inferences
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that travel across the:
synaptic gap.
The reticular formation extends from the spinal cord up to the
thalamus
Which part of a neuron is often encased by the myelin sheath?
axon
The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the:
myelin sheath
The cells that serve as the basic building blocks of the body's information processing system are called:
neurons
Which neural center in the limbic system plays a central role in emotions such as aggression and fear?
amygdala
Prozac is an antidepressant drug that increases the level of the neurotransmitter:
serotonin
The region of your cerebral cortex that enables you to recognize a person as your own mother is:
an association area
Sheelah was able to jerk her hand out of the scalding water before sensing any pain because this withdrawal reflex:
was activated by interneurons in her spinal cord.
L-dopa has been given to patients to control the:
tremors accompanying Parkinson's disease.
The part of the left temporal lobe that is involved in understanding language is known as:
Wernicke's area.
Seizures are likely to be associated with an:
undersupply GABA and an oversupply of glutamate.
Phineas Gage underwent a dramatic personality change after a tamping iron inflicted massive damage to his ________ lobes.
frontal
The sympathetic nervous system:
inhibits digestion and accelerates heartbeat.
Neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites and influence the flow of ________ into receiving neurons.
ions
Agonists are chemicals that may mimic the activity of:
neurotransmitters.
In which brain structure are nerves from the left side of the brain routed to the right side of the body?
brainstem
Professor Seif conducts research on the relationship between the limbic system and sexual motivation. Her research interests best represent the psychological specialty known as:
biological psychology.
Because neural communication occurs within the context of both cultural influences and individual mental processes, people are best understood as:
biopsychosocial systems
If a neurosurgeon directly stimulated parts of your sensory cortex, which of the following would you most likely experience?
a sense of being touched
Neurotransmitter receptor sites are primarily located on the:
dendrites
A picture of a cat is briefly flashed in the left visual field and a picture of a mouse is briefly flashed in the right visual field of a splitbrain patient. The individual will be able to use her:
right hand to indicate she saw a mouse.
After suffering a stroke that damaged his angular gyrus, Mr. Chang is likely to experience the greatest difficulty:
reading
Which nerve network in the brainstem plays an important role in controlling arousal?
reticular formation
A loss of physical coordination and balance is most likely to result from damage to the:
cerebellum.
Which regions of the cerebral cortex lie at the back of the head and receive visual information?
occipital lobes
Which region of the human brain best distinguishes us from other animals?
cerebral cortex
The right hemisphere is superior to the left at:
recognizing people's faces
Genetic influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing ________ with ________.
identical twins raised together; fraternal twins raised together
By insisting that humans are "nothing but" products of nature and nurture, we run the greatest risk of undermining:
individual responsibility.
Adopted children grow up to be ________ self-giving and altruistic than average, and they typically score ________ than their biological parents on the intelligence tests.
more; higher
The nucleus of your body cells contains:
DNA molecules.
chromosomes.
genes.
A researcher who assesses the heritability of intelligence is most likely a(n):
behavior geneticist.
A baby girl receives a(n):
X chromosome from her father and mother
Temperament is an individual's characteristic level of:
emotional reactivity
Social norms have been found to
facilitate smooth social interaction.
vary from one culture to another.
free people from uncertainty about how they ought to behave
The threadlike structures that contain genes are called:
chromosomes
American students are more likely than Japanese students to describe themselves in terms of their:
personal traits
The impact of rewards and punishments on gender-typing is most clearly emphasized by
social learning theory
The heritability of a specific trait will be lowest among:
genetically similar individuals who have been raised in dissimilar environments
An integrated understanding of gender differences in behavior in terms of gender roles, sex hormones, and individual expectations regarding gender appropriate behavior is most clearly provided by:
a biopsychosocial approach
Cross-cultural research on human development indicates that:
developmental processes are highly similar among individuals raised in different cultures.
Elton responds to his daughter's fistfight with, "Good girls don't fight!" but when his son has a fistfight he says, "Did you win?!" The role of Elton's reactions in the gender-typing of his children would be of most direct interest to:
social learning theorists.
Innovation and creativity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by:
individualism
Evolutionary psychologists emphasize that environmentally adaptive behaviors are those that have promoted:
reproductive success.
Assessing the relative effects of nature and nurture on individual differences in personality would be of most direct interest to:
behavior geneticists
The detection and encoding of stimulus energies by the nervous system is called:
sensation.
For some people, hearing certain sounds may activate color-sensitive regions of the cortex so as to trigger a sensation of color. This phenomenon is called:
synaesthesia
When looking at the hands of a clock showing 8 o'clock, certain brain cells in the visual cortex are more responsive than when the hands show 10 o'clock. This is most indicative of:
feature detection.
Loudness is to amplitude as pitch is to
frequency
Cocking your head would be most useful for detecting the ______ of a sound.
location
If a partially deaf person's hearing ability ________, his or her absolute threshold for sound ________.
improves; decreases
Our sense of taste originally was thought to involve only the following four sensations
bitter, sweet, sour, and salty
Opponent-process cells have been located in the
thalamus.
People's memories of the pain involved in a previously experienced medical procedure are dominated by the
pain experienced during the final moments of the procedure.
Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________.
detection; interpretation
Research participants who listened repeatedly to commercial subliminal tapes designed to improve self-esteem subsequently demonstrated ________ in their self-esteem test scores.
no improvement
Mrs. Acheube is just beginning to experience sensorineural hearing loss. She is likely to have the greatest difficulty hearing sounds of:
low frequency and high amplitude
Subliminally presented stimuli:
can sometimes be consciously perceived.
Brightness is to intensity as hue is to
wavelength
Our sense of the position and movement of individual body parts is called:
kinesthesis
During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Antall could hardly ever detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Antall's:
absolute threshold
According to place theory, the perception of:
high-pitched sounds is associated with large vibrations of the basilar membrane closest to the oval window.
Taste receptors are located:
on the top of the tongue.
on the sides of the tongue.
on the roof of the mouth.
Ms. Shields, a recent stroke victim, cannot consciously perceive the large book on the coffee table in front of her. Yet, when urged to identify the book, she correctly reads aloud the printed title on the book cover. Her response best illustrates:
blindsight.
The semicircular canals are most directly relevant to
the vestibular sense
Long sound waves are to short sound waves as a ________ voice is to a ________ voice.
bass; soprano
The cochlea is a
fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.
The fact that people who are colorblind to red and green may still see yellow is most easily explained by:
the opponent-process theory
Complete sensation in the absence of complete perception is best illustrated by:
prosopagnosia.
The blind spot is located in the area of the retina
where the optic nerve leaves the eye
The direct link between a single cone and a single ________ preserves the fine details in the cone's message.
bipolar cell
People who demonstrate blindsight have most likely suffered damage to their:
visual cortex.
The detection and encoding of stimulus energies by the nervous system is called
sensation
Theprocessbywhichweselect,organize,andinterpretsensoryinformationinorderto recognize meaningful objects and events is called:
perception
Those who believe in the value of subliminal audio tapes would be wrong to claim that:
unconsciously processed information is unusually persuasive.
Hormones are the chemical messengers of the:
endocrine system
Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into:
the bloodstream
Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called:
endorphins
AlthoughManuelwassittingrightnexttohisparents,hesmelledaskunkminutesbeforethey did. Apparently, Manuel has a lower ________ for skunk odor than his parents have.
absolute threshold
Accordingtotheopponent-processtheory,cellsthatarestimulatedbyexposureto________ light are inhibited by exposure to ________ light.
yellow; blue
Studies of the visual cliff have provided evidence that much of depth perception is
innate
Psychologists who study ESP are called:
parapsychologists.
A person claiming to be able to read another's mind is claiming to have the ESP ability of:
telepathy
The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain:
plasticity
The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of:
visual perception
Throughnaturalselection,thetraitsthataremostlikelytobepassedontosucceeding generations are those that contribute to:
reproduction and survival
Collectivist cultures:
give priority to the goals of their groups. B) value the maintenance of social harmony. C) foster social interdependence.
Compared to children raised in Western societies, those raised in communal societies, such as Japan or China:
grow up with a stronger integration of the sense of family into their self-concepts. B) exhibit greater shyness toward strangers.
C) exhibit greater concern for loyalty and social harmony.
Defining one's identity in terms of one's extended family or work group is most closely associated with:
collectivism
The peripheral nervous system consists of:
sensory and motor neurons
Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as:
endorphins.
Motor neurons are to the ________ nervous system as interneurons are to the ________ nervous system.
peripheral; central
The medulla is to the control of ________ as the cerebellum is to the control of ________.
breathing; walking
Anacceleratedheartbeatistoaslowedheartbeatasthe________nervoussystemistothe ________ nervous system.
sympathetic; parasympathetic
AfterKato'sseriousmotorcycleaccident,doctorsdetecteddamagetohiscerebellum.Katois most likely to have difficulty:
playing his guitar.
The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________.
seeing; hearing
A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of neuron is called the:
action potential
The persistence of learning over time most clearly depends on
memory
The process of encoding refers to
getting information into memory
The process of getting information out of memory is called
retrieval
Your consciously activated but limited-capacity memory is called ________ memory.
short-term
Automatic processing occurs without
conscious awareness
The conscious repetition of information in order to maintain it in memory is called:
rehearsal
The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the ________ effect.
serial position
Semantic encoding refers to the processing of
meanings
A mnemonic device is a
memory aid
Visually associating five items needed from the grocery store with mental images of a bun, a shoe, a tree, a door, and a hive best illustrates the use of:
the "peg-word" system
Chunking refers to
the organization of information into meaningful units.
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli is called ________ memory.
iconic
Echoic memory refers to:
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.
"The magical number seven, plus or minus two" refers to the storage capacity of ________ memory.
short-term
Which type of memory has an essentially unlimited capacity?
long-term memory
The increase in synaptic firing potential that contributes to memory formation is known as:
long-term potentiation.
Joshua vividly recalls his feelings and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of his grandfather's unexpected death. This best illustrates:
flashbulb memory
A retention of skills and dispositions without conscious recollection is known as ________ memory.
implicit
The hippocampus plays a critical role in ________ memory.
explicit
Memories are primed by
retrieval cues
Déjà vu refers to the
eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation or event.
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information is called:
proactive interference
The finding that people who sleep after learning a list of nonsense syllables forget less than people who stay awake provides evidence that forgetting may involve:
interference
A type of motivated forgetting in which anxiety-arousing memories are blocked from conscious awareness is known as:
repression
By incorporating errors originating from a hypnotist's leading questions, hypnotically refreshed memories often illustrate:
the misinformation effect.
Which term refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating?
cognition
By dividing broad concepts into increasingly smaller and detailed subgroupings, we create:
category hierarchies
A prototype is a:
best example of a particular category.
An algorithm is a:
methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
Simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgments efficiently are called:
heuristics
The confirmation bias refers to the tendency to
search for information that is consistent with our preconceptions
The tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal uses is called:
functional fixedness
Our tendency to judge the likelihood of an event on the basis of how readily we can remember instances of its occurrence is called the:
availability heuristic
The overconfidence phenomenon refers to the tendency to
underestimate the extent to which our beliefs and judgments are erroneous
College students routinely underestimate how much time it will take them to complete assigned course projects. This best illustrates the impact of:
overconfidence
Consumers respond more positively to ground beef advertised as "75 percent lean" than to ground beef described as "25 percent fat." This illustrates that consumer reactions are influenced by:
framing
Although intuition can at times hinder rationality, it is often valuable because it facilitates:
quick decisions
In order to correctly string words together to form sentences, we need to apply proper rules of
syntax
The earliest stage of speech development is called the ________ stage.
babbling
Telegraphic speech is most closely associated with the ________ stage of language development.
two-word
B. F. Skinner emphasized the importance of ________ in language acquisition.
reinforcement
Spearman's g factor refers to:
a general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks.
If a test is standardized, this means that:
a person's test performance can be compared with that of a representative pretested group.
The distribution of intelligence test scores in the general population forms a bell-shaped pattern. This pattern is called a:
normal curve
A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of:
validity
Motivation is defined by psychologists as
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.
Positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called:
incentives
Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies?
arousal theory
The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for:
food and water
The set point is
the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.
Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by
an obsessive fear of becoming obese
The onset of ________ nearly always begins after a dieter has broken diet restrictions and gorged.
bulimia nervosa
The recipes commonly used in countries with hot climates are more likely to include ________ than those in countries with colder climates.
spices
When an organism's weight falls below its set point, the organism is likely to experience a(n):
increase in hunger and a decrease in its metabolic rate
Given an obese parent, boys are at an ________ risk for obesity and girls are at a ________ risk for obesity.
increased; increased
The Oedipus and Electra complexes have their roots in the:
phallic stage
For humanistic psychologists, many of our behaviors and perceptions are ultimately shaped by whether our ________ is ________ or ________.
self-concept; positive; negative
Laura fails to recognize any connection between her unsafe sexual practices and the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Laura's lack of perceptiveness best illustrates the dangers of:
an external locus of control.
Mrs. Sunstedt believes that parents should accept and try to understand their children's feelings and should honestly disclose their own inner feelings to their children. Her approach to parentchild interaction was most explicitly recommended by:
Rogers
Forgotten memories that we can easily recall were said by Freud to be:
preconscious
Isaiah is sober and reserved; Rashid is fun-loving and affectionate. The Eysencks would say that Isaiah ________ and Rashid ________.
is an introvert; is an extravert
A psychoanalyst would characterize a person who is impulsive and self-indulgent as possessing a strong ________ and a weak ________
id; superego
Projective tests are most closely associated with the ________ perspective.
psychoanalytic
Which of the following is a common criticism of the humanistic perspective?
A) Its concepts are vague and subjective.
B) The emphasis on the self encourages selfishness in individuals.
C) Humanism fails to appreciate the reality of evil in human behavior.
D) All of the above are common criticisms.
According to Freud, ________ is the process by which children incorporate their parents' values into their ________.
identification; superegos
In high school, Britta and Debbie were best friends. They thought they were a lot alike, as did everyone else who knew them. After high school, they went on to very different colleges, careers, and life courses. Now, at their twenty-fifth reunion, they are shocked at how little they have in common. Bandura would suggest that their differences reflect the interactive effects of environment, personality, and behavior, which he refers to as
reciprocal determinism
A major difference between the psychoanalytic and trait perspectives is that:
trait theory defines personality in terms of behavior; psychoanalytic theory, in terms
of its underlying dynamics.
B) trait theory describes behavior but does not attempt to explain it.
C) psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the origins of personality in childhood sexuality.
D) all of the above are differences.
Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud's assumption that women:
have weak superegos.
During the early psychosexual stages, the id derives pleasure from distinct:
erogenous zones.
Because Greta is extremely extraverted, she frequently goes to parties where she is encouraged to laugh and socialize. Because Jim is extremely introverted, he frequently spends weekends in the library where it's easy to quietly reflect and study. Greta and Jim best illustrate what is meant by:
reciprocal determinism.
Which of the following places the greatest emphasis on the unconscious mind?
the psychoanalytic perspective
The perception that one's fate is determined by luck reflects:
an external locus of control
According to Freud, defense mechanisms are methods of reducing:
anxiety
A major criticism of trait theory is that it:
overestimates the consistency of behavior in different situations.
Freud suggested that orally fixated adults are especially likely to exhibit:
passive dependence
Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development?
Jung
Walter Mischel's studies of college students' conscientiousness revealed only a modest relationship between a student being conscientious on one occasion and being similarly conscientious on another occasion. According to Mischel, this should make psychologists more cautious about emphasizing:
personality traits.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a(n):
empirically derived and objective personality test.
The Big Five personality factors are:
emotional stability, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness.
The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of:
factor analysis.
Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between:
the actual self and the ideal self.
A psychologist at the campus mental health center administered an empirically derived personality test to diagnose an emotionally troubled student. Which test did the psychologist most likely administer?
the MMPI
Abraham Maslow studied the lives of Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, and Eleanor Roosevelt in order to understand the nature of:
self-actualization.
Recent research on the Big Five personality factors provides evidence that:
some tendencies decrease during adulthood, while others increase.
Which of Freud's ideas would not be accepted by most contemporary psychologists?
Development is essentially fixed in childhood.
Nadine has a relatively low level of brain arousal. Trait theorists would probably predict
that she is:
an introvert.
Carl Rogers suggested that the ________ is a central feature of personality.
self-concept
Trait theory attempts to:
describe and classify people in terms of their predispositions to behave in certain
ways.
Bruce wants to be a loving husband but at the same time wants to express his disgust for some of his wife's habits. According to Freud, Bruce's ________ might enable him to partially satisfy both desires.
ego
When 2-year-old Matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that Matthew was unable to resist the demands of his:
id.
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of
self-determination
Mr.Dutiot was asked by his psychotherapist to look at some ambitious pictures and
make up a story about each. Mr. Dutoit was most likely taking the:
TAT
Freud is to the psychoanalytic perspective as Allport is to the ________ perspective.
trait
Humanistic theorists have been criticized for:
underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.
Jill has a biting, sarcastic manner. According to Freud, she is:
fixated in the oral stage of development.
Andrew's grandfather, who has lived a rich and productive life, is a spontaneous, loving, and self-accepting person. Maslow might say that he:
is a self-actualizing person
Santa Claus is to Superman as ________ is to ________.
endomorph; mesomorph
According to Freud, the personality system that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the:
superego.
According to Freud's theory, personality arises in response to conflicts between:
our biological impulses and the social restraints against them.
Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than ________ it.
describing; explaining
Which perspective on personality emphasizes the interaction between the individual and the environment in shaping personality?
social-cognitive
Suzy bought a used, high-mileage automobile because it was all she could afford. Attempting to justify her purchase, she raves to her friends about the car's attractiveness, good acceleration, and stereo. According to Freud, Suzy is using the defense mechanism of:
rationalization.
Which of the following is the correct order of psychosexual stages proposed by Freud?
oral; anal; phallic; latency; genital
Learned helplessness is most likely to contribute to:
an external locus of control
In promoting personality growth, the person-centered perspective emphasizes all but:
altruism
For his class presentation, Bruce plans to discuss the Big Five personality factors used by people throughout the world to describe others or themselves. Which of the following is not a factor that Bruce will discuss?
independence
The MyersBriggs Type Indicator classifies people according to personality types identified by:
Carl Jung.
According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the:
ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized.
Which of the following Big Five trait dimensions is most closely related to one's level of creativity?
openness
According to Rogers, three conditions are necessary to promote growth in personality. These are:
genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
Id is to ego as ________ is to ________
pleasure principle; reality principle
The ________ classifies people according to Carl Jung's personality types.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Ego is to id as ________ is to ________
reality principle; pleasure principle
Abdul mistakenly believes that his classmates at school are unusually hostile. In fact, Abdul is the most quarrelsome and aggressive child in the school. According to psychoanalytic theory, Abdul's belief that his classmates are hostile is a:
projection
According to psychoanalytic theory, boys' fear of castration is most closely associated with
the Oedipus complex
Which of the following is a major criticism of the social-cognitive perspective?
It focuses too little on the inner traits of a person
Projective tests such as the Rorschach inkblot test have been criticized because:
they have low reliability and low validity.
Randy's substandard academic performance is both a result and a cause of his feelings of academic inferiority. This best illustrates the importance of:
reciprocal determinism
Which of the following was not mentioned in the text as a criticism of Freud's theory
There is no evidence of anything like an "unconscious."
Neo-Freudians such as Adler and Horney believed that
Freud placed too great an emphasis on sexual and aggressive instincts.
Melissa is unconsciously fearful that her husband is a better cook than she. Recently, she refused his offer to prepare dinner because, said she, "You could better spend the time playing with our kids." Melissa's comment best illustrates:
rationalization.
Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic
personality traits
The text defines personality as:
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Freud suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the development of:
the superego
The humanistic perspective on personality
emphasizes the growth potential of "healthy" individuals.
Wanda wishes to instill in her children an accepting attitude toward other people. Maslow and Rogers would probably recommend that she:
teach her children first to accept themselves.
According to the psychoanalytic perspective, a child who frequently "slips" and calls her teacher "mom" probably:
has some unresolved conflicts concerning her mother.
In studying personality, a trait theorist would most likely:
use a personality inventory
The major reason for the unreliability of the Rorschach inkblot test is the fact that:
psychologists often do not agree on how to score the results of this test.
Laura fails to recognize any connection between her unsafe sexual practices and the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Laura's lack of perceptiveness best illustrates the dangers of:
an external locus of control.
Innate ability is to learned skill as _ is to _.
nature, nuture
Mrs. Alfieri belives that her husband's angry outbursts against her result from his unconscious hatred of his own mother. She is looking at her husband's behavior as a(n) perpective.
psychodynamic
Clinical psychologists speciliaze in
providing therapy to troubled people
A hypsothesis is
testable prediction that gives direction to research
The case study is a resreach method in which
a single individual is studied in great depth
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the _ of a single neuron
Dendrites to the cell body to the axon
Neurotransmitters are relased from the knoblike terminals at the end of the
axon
An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to
depression
The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the _ nervous systems
peripheral
A simple, automatic, inborn repsonse to a sensory stimulus is called a(n)
reflex
After Kato's serious motorcyle accident, doctor's detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most lkeely to have difficulty
playing his guitar.
The occipital lobes are to the _ as the temporal lobes are to the _.
seeing, hearing
The motor cortex is located in the _ lobes.
frontal
People's moral judgements are most likely to seem unrestrained by normal emotions if they have suffered damage to their
frontal cortex
Afer Paul's serious snow-skiing accident, doctor's detected damage to his cerebral cortex in Wernicke's area. Because of the damage, Paul is most likely to experience difficulty in
understanding what others are saying
The corpus callosum is a wide band of axom fibers that
transmits information between the cerebral hemispheres
A picture of a dog is breifly flashed in the left visual field of a split-brain patient. At the same time, a picture of a boy is flased in the right visual field. In identifying what she saw, the patient would be most likely to
verbally report that she saw a boy
Due to an automobile accidnet, Jenny suffered damage to her cerebral cortex in Broca's area. Jenny is most likely to experience
aphasia
The visual cortex is located in the
occipital lobes
Signal reception is to _ as signal tranmission is to _
dendrite, axon
Who would have been most likely to claim that a slight protrusion in a certain region of someone's skull indicated that the individual had an optimistic personality?
Franz Gall
Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called:
endorphins.
Botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is a(n):
ACh antagonist.
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the:
synaptic gaps
In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ________ blood sugar levels and ________
raises; dilates
While listening to operatic solos, musicians process the lyrics and the tunes in separate brain areas. This most clearly illustrates the functioning of different:
neural networks.
Which of the following chemical messengers is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone?
norepinephrine
Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations?
a PET scan
Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?
brainstem
After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. It is most probable that she has suffered damage to her:
cerebellum.
The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is called the:
hypothalamus.
Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating moral judgments?
frontal lobes
The regions of the parietal lobes that are involved in mathematical and spatial reasoning are known as:
association areas.
Due to an automobile accident, Jenny suffered damage to her cerebral cortex in Broca's area. Jenny is most likely to experience:
aphasia
The successful functioning of children who have experienced the surgical removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere best illustrates the value of:
plasticity.