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Mr. Leahy, Test on Unit One

psychoanalytic approach

originated with Sigmund Freud, who emphasized unconscious motivations and conflicts, and the importance of early childhood experiences.

criticisms of psychoanalysis

Many of the concepts of this theory are difficult to measure and quantify

strengths of pyschoanalysis

Extremely influential
Everyone uses Freud as a template to their experiments

behavioral psychology

the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning

operant conditioning

a method of influencing behavior by rewarding desired behaviors and punishing undesired ones

classical conditioning

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

criticisms of behavioral psychology

Doesn't take into account one's mind or feelings
Does not account for other types of learning

strengths of behavioral psychology

Based upon observable behaviors, the most scientific approach of psychology
Able to collect data

humanistic psychology

the psychological perspective that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedoms and their potential for growth. Stresses the importance of self-esteem, free will, an choice in human behavior. Emerged from the pioneering work of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.

cognitive psychology

perspective that focuses on the mental processes involved in perception, learning, memory, and thinking

the scientific method in psychology

define the problem
form a hypothesis
test a hypothesis
drawing a conclusion

independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

dependent variable

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

Sigmund Freud

austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis

Ivan Pavlov

discovered classical conditioning; trained dogs to salivate at the ringing of a bell

B.F. Skinner

American psychologist, is considered the father of operant conditioning which is basically reward and punishment learning

Abraham Maslow

Humanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self-actualization"

Wilhelm Wundt

german physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879

John B. Watson

founded behaviorism


the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

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