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Intro to Sociology Unit 1

Mr. Leahy, Test on Unit One
psychoanalytic approach
originated with Sigmund Freud, who emphasized unconscious motivations and conflicts, and the importance of early childhood experiences.
criticisms of psychoanalysis
Many of the concepts of this theory are difficult to measure and quantify
strengths of pyschoanalysis
Extremely influential
Everyone uses Freud as a template to their experiments
behavioral psychology
the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
operant conditioning
a method of influencing behavior by rewarding desired behaviors and punishing undesired ones
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
criticisms of behavioral psychology
Doesn't take into account one's mind or feelings
Does not account for other types of learning
strengths of behavioral psychology
Based upon observable behaviors, the most scientific approach of psychology
Able to collect data
humanistic psychology
the psychological perspective that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedoms and their potential for growth. Stresses the importance of self-esteem, free will, an choice in human behavior. Emerged from the pioneering work of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
cognitive psychology
perspective that focuses on the mental processes involved in perception, learning, memory, and thinking
the scientific method in psychology
define the problem
form a hypothesis
test a hypothesis
drawing a conclusion
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
Sigmund Freud
austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis
Ivan Pavlov
discovered classical conditioning; trained dogs to salivate at the ringing of a bell
B.F. Skinner
American psychologist, is considered the father of operant conditioning which is basically reward and punishment learning
Abraham Maslow
Humanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self-actualization"
Wilhelm Wundt
german physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879
John B. Watson
founded behaviorism
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes