Sat II Biology Plants

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Tissue containing cells that carry water and dissolved minerals up from the roots to the rest of the plant.


Xylem cells in gymnosperms forming a connected network; when they die, their cell walls leave a channel for the transport of water.


The transport of water and carbohydrates; caused by transpirational pull, capillary action, and root pressure caused by water entering the roots.


Transports nutrients from the leaves to the rest of the plant. Made of tube-shaped cells.

ground tissue

Involved in storage and support.


Ferns; a phylum of tracheophytes that don't produce seeds


Tissue involved in growth. Can differentiate into xylem or phloem.

root hairs

Specialized cells of the root epidermis with thin-walled projections. Provide increased surface area for absorption.

palisade layer

Elongated cells under the upper epidermis of the leaf that contain chloroplasts.

spongy layer

Moist, loosely packed layer of cells containing chloroplasts.


Regulate the loss of water through transpiration and allow diffusion of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and oxygen between the leaf and the atmosphere.

apical meristem

Provide growth in the root tips and stems.

lateral meristem

Cambium; permits growth in diameter.


Responsible for phototropism and geotropism.


Stimulate rapid stem elongation, particularly in dwarf plants; inhibit the formation of new roots; stimulate the production of new phloem cells by the cambium; terminate the dormancy of seeds and buds.


Promote cell division.


Stimulates ripening of fruit and induces aging.


Regulate the activity of auxins.


Parts of the root that split to form new bulbs.


Modified underground stems that have buds that develop into new plants.


Plant stems that run above and along the ground and form a new plant near the main plant.


Woody, underground stems that reproduce through new, upright stems that appear at intervals.


Male reproductive organ of the flower.


Thin, stalklike filament with a sac at the top which produces pollen grains.


Flower's female organ; consists of the stigma, style, and ovary.


Sticky top part of the flower that catches the pollen.


Tubelike structure connecting the stigma and ovary.


Develops into leaves and upper part of the stem.


Seeds leaves that store food for the embryo.


Develops into lower stem and root.


Grows and feeds the embryo.

seed coat

Develops from the outer covering of the ovule.

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