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Sat II Biology Plants

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xylem
Tissue containing cells that carry water and dissolved minerals up from the roots to the rest of the plant.
tracheids
Xylem cells in gymnosperms forming a connected network; when they die, their cell walls leave a channel for the transport of water.
translocation
The transport of water and carbohydrates; caused by transpirational pull, capillary action, and root pressure caused by water entering the roots.
phloem
Transports nutrients from the leaves to the rest of the plant. Made of tube-shaped cells.
ground tissue
Involved in storage and support.
pterophytes
Ferns; a phylum of tracheophytes that don't produce seeds
cambium
Tissue involved in growth. Can differentiate into xylem or phloem.
root hairs
Specialized cells of the root epidermis with thin-walled projections. Provide increased surface area for absorption.
palisade layer
Elongated cells under the upper epidermis of the leaf that contain chloroplasts.
spongy layer
Moist, loosely packed layer of cells containing chloroplasts.
stomata
Regulate the loss of water through transpiration and allow diffusion of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and oxygen between the leaf and the atmosphere.
apical meristem
Provide growth in the root tips and stems.
lateral meristem
Cambium; permits growth in diameter.
auxins
Responsible for phototropism and geotropism.
gibberellins
Stimulate rapid stem elongation, particularly in dwarf plants; inhibit the formation of new roots; stimulate the production of new phloem cells by the cambium; terminate the dormancy of seeds and buds.
cytokinins
Promote cell division.
ethylene
Stimulates ripening of fruit and induces aging.
antiauxins
Regulate the activity of auxins.
bulbs
Parts of the root that split to form new bulbs.
tubers
Modified underground stems that have buds that develop into new plants.
runners
Plant stems that run above and along the ground and form a new plant near the main plant.
rhizomes
Woody, underground stems that reproduce through new, upright stems that appear at intervals.
stamen
Male reproductive organ of the flower.
anther
Thin, stalklike filament with a sac at the top which produces pollen grains.
pistil
Flower's female organ; consists of the stigma, style, and ovary.
stigma
Sticky top part of the flower that catches the pollen.
style
Tubelike structure connecting the stigma and ovary.
epicotyl
Develops into leaves and upper part of the stem.
cotyledons
Seeds leaves that store food for the embryo.
hypocotyl
Develops into lower stem and root.
endosperm
Grows and feeds the embryo.
seed coat
Develops from the outer covering of the ovule.