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Tissue containing cells that carry water and dissolved minerals up from the roots to the rest of the plant.
Xylem cells in gymnosperms forming a connected network; when they die, their cell walls leave a channel for the transport of water.
The transport of water and carbohydrates; caused by transpirational pull, capillary action, and root pressure caused by water entering the roots.
Specialized cells of the root epidermis with thin-walled projections. Provide increased surface area for absorption.
Regulate the loss of water through transpiration and allow diffusion of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and oxygen between the leaf and the atmosphere.
Stimulate rapid stem elongation, particularly in dwarf plants; inhibit the formation of new roots; stimulate the production of new phloem cells by the cambium; terminate the dormancy of seeds and buds.
Woody, underground stems that reproduce through new, upright stems that appear at intervals.
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