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79 terms

Ch 12 vocab

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adenoids
lymphatic tissue in nasopharynx
alveolus (alveoli)
air sac in the lung
apex up the lung
tip or uppermost portion of the lung
base of the lung
lower portion of the lung
bronchioles
smallest branches of the bronchi
bronchus (bronchi)
branch of the trachea that is a passageway inbto the lung; bronchial tube
carbon dioxide
gas produced by body cells when oxygen and food combine
cilia
thin hairs attached to the mucous membrane of the epithelium lining of the respiratory tract
diaphragm
muscle separating the chest and abdomen
epiglottis
lid-like piece of cartilage that covers the larynx, preventing food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing
expiration
breathing out (exhalation)
glottis
slit-like opening to the larynx
hilum (of the lung)
midline region where th bronchi, blood vessels and nerves enter and exits the lungs
inspiration
breathing in (inhalation)
larynx
voice box; containing the vocal cords
lobe
division of a lung
mediastinum
region between the lungs in the chest cavity
nares
openings through the nose carrying air into the nasal cavities
oxygen (O2)
gas that passes into the bloodsteam at the lungs and travels to all body cells
palatine tonsil
one of a pair of almond shaped masses of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx
parietal pluera
outer fold of pleura lying closer to the ribs and chest wall
pharnx
thoat; including the nasopharynx, oropharynx and larnygopharynx
pleura
double folded membrane surrounding each lung
pulmonary parenchyma
essential parts of the lung, responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli
respiration
process of moving air into and out of the lungs; breathing
trachea
windpipe
visceral pleura
inner fold of pleura lying closer to the lung tissue
auscultation
listening to sounds within the body
percussion
tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of the underlying structure
rale
fine crackling sounds heard on auscultation when there is fluid in the alveoli
rhonchus (rhonchi)
loud rumbling sound heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum
stridor
strained, high pitched, relatively loud sound made on inspiration
wheeze
continuous high-pitched whistling sound heard when air is forced through a narrow space
croup
acute viral infection in infants and children
diptheria
acute infection of the troat and upper respiratory tract caused by the diptheria bacterium
epistaxis
nosebleed
pertussis
highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx and trachea
asthma
chronic inflammatory disorder with airway obstruction caused by bronchial edema
bronchiectasis
chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection in the lower lobes of the lung
chronic bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi persisting over a long time
cystic fibrosis
inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick, mucous secretions that do not drain normally
atelectasis
incomplete expansion of alveoli; collapsed, functionless, airless lung
emphysema
hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls
lung cancer
malignant tumor rising from the lungs and bronchi
pneumoconiosis
abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection and bronchitis
pneumonia
acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus
pulmonary abscess
a large collection of pus in the lungs
pulmonary edema
swelling and fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles
pulmonary embolism
clot or other material lodges in vessels of the lungs
pulmonary fibrosis
formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs
sarcoidosis
chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause in which small nodules or tubercles develop in thelungs
tuberculosis (TB)
infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
pleural effusion
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
pleurisy
inflammation of the pleura
pneumothorax
collection of air scas in the pleural space
antrocosis
coal dust accumulation in the lungs
asbestosis
asbestos particles accumulate in the lungs
bacilli (bacillus)
rod-shaped bacteria
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
chronic condition of persistent obstruction of air flow through bronchial tubes and lungs
hydrothorax
collection of fluid in the pleural cavity
paroxysmal
pertaining to a sudden occurence, such as a spasm or seizure
pulmonary infarction
occurence of necrotic tissue in the lungs
purulent
containing pus
chest x-ray (CXR)
radiographic image on the thoracic cavity
computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest
computer-generated x-ray images show thoracic structures in cross section
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest
magnetic waves create detailed images of the chest in frontal, lateral and cross section planes
positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung
radioactive substance is injected and images reveal metobolic activity in the lung
ventilation-perfussion (V/Q) scan
detection device records radioactivity in the lung after injection of a radiosotope or inhalation of small radioactive gas
bronchoscopy
fiberoptic or rigid endoscope inserted into the bronchial tubes
endotracheal intubation
placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx and trachea to establish an airway
laryngoscopy
visual examination of the voice box
lung biopsy
removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination
pulmonary function tests (PFT's)
tests that measure the ventilation mechanics of the lung
thoracentesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space
thoracotomy
major surgical incision of the chest
thoracoscopy
visual examination of the chest via small incisions and use of an endoscope
tracheostomy
surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck
tuberculin test
determines past or present tuberculous infection based on a positive skin test
tube thoracostomy
chest tube is passed through an opeing in the skin of the chest to continuously drain a pleural effusion