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58 terms

Chapter 10 Test Review

biology
STUDY
PLAY
DNA and RNA are composed of what monomer units?
nucleotides
What is the shape of a DNA molecule?
double helix
What is the sugar in found in DNA?
deoxyribose
What is the sugar found in RNA?
ribose
What is the nitrogenous base found in RNA but not in DNA?
uracil
What part of the nucleotide is found in the center of a DNA molecule?
nitrogenous base
What kind of bond holds the nucleotides together in the strands of a DNA molecule?
hydrogen
In a DNA double helix, thymine bonds with what? cytosine?
adenine; guanine
The bonding of A with T and C with G is called what?
complementary base pairing
In complementary base pairing, what part of the nucleotides link together?
nitrogenous bases
If adenine makes up 30% of the bases in a DNA double helix, what percent of the bases are thymine, cytosine, and guanine?
T= 30%
C= 20%
G= 20%
During replication, the two strands of DNA separate at a point called a/an
origin of replication
During replication, the two strands of DNA separate at a point called an origin of replication to make what?
replication bubble
The enzyme that adds new nucleotides during DNA replication is called what?
DNA polymerase
What are the steps of DNA replication?
1. Begins at the origin of replications where the DNA strands separate
2. Each parent strand becomes a template for the complementary base pairs of the daughter strand
3. DNA polymerase covalently bonds nucleotides
4. Replication goes in both directions forming bubbles which progress until they join and you have two separate identical daughter DNA molecules
If the sequence of bases on one strand of DNA is TCGATAC, what is the sequence of bases on the complementary strand?
AGCTATG
If DNA in a cell is radioactively tagged and the cell divides, how much of the DNA will be radioactive in the daughter cells?
half
What is the process that converts the information stored in DNA to RNA?
transcription
Where does transcription take place in a eukaryotic cell?
nucleus
What is the process of assembling amino acids to form a polypeptide called?
translation
Where does translation take place in a eukaryotic cell?
cytoplasm
What cell organelle is associated with translation?
ribosome
A large region of DNA that directs the formation of a protein is called a ________?
gene
Does the genetic code vary among organisms or is it constant?
constant
What three kinds of RNA are involved in protein synthesis?
mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
Which kind of RNA molecule bonds to one specific type of amino acid?
tRNA
What enzyme is responsible for transcription?
RNA polymerase
How does transcription begin?
when DNA polymerase binds to the promotor on DNA
What sequence ends transcription?
terminator sequence
What are the additional nucleotides that are added to the ends of the RNA transcript to protect the RNA called?
cap and tail
What are the coding sequences in mRNA called?
exons
What are the noncoding sequences in mRNA called?
introns
What is the process that joins the mRNA continuous coding sequence (the part that actually codes for protein) before it leaves the eukaryotic nucleus called?
RNA splicing
What is a triplet of nucleotides (group of 3 sequential bases) on an mRNA called?
codon
An mRNA codon codes for what?
polypeptide
How many nucleotides make up a codon?
3
What would be the sequence of bases in mRNA transcribed from the following DNA sequence: TACGCAAT
AUGCGUUA
A codon found on mRNA base pairs what on tRNA molecule?
anticodon
Once translation (polypeptide synthesis) starts, what is the order of the three main steps by which it elongates?
1. codon recognition
2. peptide bond formation
3. translocation of the tRNA and mRNA through the ribosome
Promotors and terminators are found in what molecule?
DNA
Start and stop codons are found in what molecule?
mRNA
What are changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA called?
mutations
What kind of mutation in a DNA sequence may or may not alter the amino acid in a polypeptide?
base substitution
Removal of nucleotides in a DNA sequence results in what kind of mutation?
deletion
Addition of nucleotides in a DNA sequence results in what kind of mutation?
insertion
What does the cell use to repair damaged DNA?
enzymes DNA polymerase
What is the ultimate source of the diversity of life?
mutations
What kind of nucleic acid makes up viral genomes?
RNA or DNA, but not both. RNA in plants. RNA or DNA in animals
What are viruses that infect bacteria called?
bacteriophages
Viral replication, in which the host cell bursts following each cycle, is called what?
lytic
Viral nucleic acid becomes integrated into the host cell's DNA during what viral cycle?
lysogenic
Do most plants have DNA or RNA genomes?
RNA
What kind of genome is found in retroviruses?
RNA
What is an example of a retrovirus?
HIV
What enzyme is part of the HIV virus and required for its replication?
reverse transcriptase
What is the purpose of the enzyme reverse transcriptase?
RNA -> DNA
How is it possible for some of a host cell's genome to end up in a virus?
Lysogenic cycle combines viruses DNA with host cell when it goes back to lytic cycle to separate, some of the host DNA might stay with virus
Describe the similarities and differences between DNA and RNA.
Similar: made up of nucleotides
Different: DNA has thymine, deoxyribose, is double stranded, holds genetic code; RNA has uracil, ribose single stranded, makes protein