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Cultural Differences Exam
Terms in this set (36)
Viewers in different social and cultural contexts understand the same text in different ways.
Language, image, and cultural context—combined together, they create/reproduce meaning of the world surround us.
What is looking
A. It is a social practice
B. It involves relationships of power
C. A single image can serve a multitude of purposes, appear in a range of settings, and mean different things to different people.
The myth of Photography
A. Photograph cannot reveal the truth.
B. It is created by selection, framing, and personalization.
C. It cannot be free from the dynamics of social power and ideology.
A. Systems of belief
B. Specific values and beliefs appears to be natural or given.
C. It influences on how media representation works.
D. Visual culture is integral to ideologies (How media representation works).
The production of meaning
A. The image itself
B. Its producer
C. The structure of image
D. The viewer's interpretation
E. The contexts in which an image is exhibited and viewed.
A. The dominant social classes control everything.
B. Top-down notion
C.People who are in lower cases do not have any power to control the dominant ideology.
Top Down Notion
A. "Ideology does not simply reflect the conditions of the world, whether falsely or not (p.69)."
B. Ideology spreads throughout institutions such as school, court, and religious places.
C. Interpellation: An image interpellates viewers. If you can understand the codes and meanings of an image, it means that it interpellates you.
An image interpellates viewers. If you can understand the codes and meanings of an image, it means that it interpellates you.
A. Dominant ideologies are often presented as a common sense in a society.
B. Hegemony: A state or condition of a culture arrived at through negotiations over meanings, laws, and social relationships
A state or condition of a culture arrived at through negotiations over meanings, laws, and social relationships
A. Economic capital/ Social capital/ Cultural capital
B. Taste is a culturally specific and class-based concept.
C. Taste can be an indication of one's educational/cultural level.
D. Taste can be exercised and displayed through patterns of consumption and display.
Hall: Encoding vs. Decoding
Dominant-hegemonic reading/Negotiated reading (viewers appropriate images and texts strategically to alter their meanings)/Oppositional reading
Goffman's <Presentation of self>
Social interaction (a theater) / people in everyday life (an actor)/ other people who observe the people (audiences)
A. Gender display is learned throughout socialization.
B. Gender as the content, sex as the container: the content may vary, but the container is part of the nature.
A. Sex refers to the biological apparatus, while gender refers to the meanings that are attached to those differences within a culture.
B. Sex distinction is socially constructed.
A. It can be explained by color spectrum.
B. A socially constructed category that reflects real biological variation.
C. A person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn't seem to fit the typical definitions of female or male.
"Structuralism" binary opposition. Divide characters into two
Difference- things can only be distinguished by opposition to other thing.
What is missing in current gender and sex discourse is "gender inequality and hierarchy".
A. Identities are complex and multiple.
B. Among various identities, a core identity will be the key part of one's public presentation.
A historical discontinuity/ the new ear with technological development/ time and space transformation
The concept of the flâneur
It describes someone who strolls the urban space, watching, hiding in the crowd and enjoying the moment. It is an attitude to life, or better an art of living.
Descartes's understanding of the human subject in modernity
A. The modern human subject is constituted through the discourses of institutional life.
B. The human subject is always constituted in relationships of power that are enacted through discourse.
A. The mirror phase
B. How this can be connected to the understanding of human subjects and their identities
the individual who looks
the practice of looking
Foucault's notion of discourse
A. Discourse means not just spoken language. It covers the broader variety of institutions and practices through which meaning is produced.
B. The gaze is integral to systems of power and ideas about knowledge.
C. Three main factors to construct a discourse in a society: Panopticism, power/knowledge/biopower
D. The gaze helps to establish relationships of power
The process of spectatorship
A. The viewers suspend disbelief in the fictional world of the film.
B. The viewers identify with specific characters in the film.
C. The viewer identify with the film's overall ideology.
D. Identification with character or camera position helps the process.
Mulvey's <Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema>
A. Visual pleasure: the concept of gaze, the relationship of pleasure and looking
B. Scopophilia, voyeurism.
C. Pleasure and identification are not dictated by one's biological sex, or even by one's sexuality because looking practices are strongly bound up in fantasy.
Images are central to the experience of modernity and provide a complex field in which power relations are exercised and looks are exchanged in the systems of power and knowledge of the modern state.
The concepts are socially constructed.
A. The ideas of "ethnicity" and "ethnic identity" remain fluid forms of identity.
B. It often overlooks 'whiteness' in the discourse.
C. The history and experience of each immigration matters
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