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29 terms

Research Problems, Purposes, and Hypotheses

STUDY
PLAY
Research Problem
area of concern; gap in knowledge needed for practice
Problem Statement
Justification of need
Current
Significance for nursing
Need significant and current references for nursing research.
Purpose Statement
Clear, concise statement
Goal, aim, focus, or objective of study
Includes variables, population, and setting
Examine Study Feasibility
Time commitment
Money commitment
Researchers' expertise
Availability of subjects, facility, and equipment
Ethical considerations
Qualitative Study Purpose
Identifies areas of concern
Gains new insights
Is focus of study
Identifies qualitative approach and assumptions
Differs among each qualitative methodology because of philosophical orientations
Significance of a study problem and purpose
Should build on previous research
Should influence nursing practice
Promotes theory testing or development
Addresses nursing research priorities
Critiquing Guidelines for problems and purposes
Is problem clear and concise?
Is problem limited in scope?
Is problem narrow to focus study?
Does problem identify variables, population, and setting?
Are problem and purpose able to generate knowledge?
Is study feasible?
Is study ethical?
Research Question
interrogative statements that focus on what variables or concepts are to be described and what relationships might exist among them
Hypotheses
Formal statements of expected relationships among variables
Types of Hypotheses
Associative vs. causal
Simple vs. complex
Nondirectional vs. directional
Null vs. research
Associative hypothesis
Relationships between variables
examples:
An increase in variable X is associated with an increase in variable Y in a specified population
An increase in variable X is associated with a decrease in variable Y in a specified population
Causal hypothesis
Cause-and-effect relationship between variables. In a true experimental design
example:
Persons who participate in nurse-managed home telemonitoring (HT) plus usual care or who participate in nurse-managed community-based monitoring (CBM) plus usual care will have greater improvement in blood pressure (BP) from baseline to 3 months' follow-up than will persons who receive usual care onl
Simple Hypothesis
2 variables (one independent and the other dependent
examples:
Higher levels of perceived control would be associated with less emotional distress in spouses of patients recovering from cardiac disease
Perceived control could be enhanced in spouses of cardiac patients by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training
Complex Hypothesis
more than 2 variables
example:
Both men and women who participated in the CHIP (Cardiac Home Information Program) intervention would have lower levels of psychological distress, higher levels of physical functioning, and fewer adverse symptoms than would women and men who did not participate in such a program
Non directional hypothesis
Relationship exists between variables, but hypothesis does not predict nature of relationship
Ex. Early nursing home residents self appraisal are r/t their conditioning factors between the elder nsg home residents and self appraisal. But no direction.
directional hypothesis
Nature (positive or negative) of interaction between two or more variables is stated
These are developed from theoretical framework, literature, or clinical practice
example: Attitudes of pediatric nurses toward mentally retarded clients are more favorable than those of medical surgical nurses
Null hypothesis
States there is no difference or relationship between variables
Is also called statistical hypothesis
can also be associative hypothesis, also simple/complex hypothesis too.
example: There is no difference in reported pain experienced by cancer patients with chronic pain who listen to music with positive suggestion of pain reduction and those who do not
Research hypothesis
States what researcher thinks is true
There is a relationship between two or more variables
example: Cancer patients with chronic pain who listen to music with positive suggestions of pain reduction have less reported pain than those who do not listen to music
Variable
Qualities, properties, or characteristics of people, things, or situations that are manipulated or measured in research
Characteristics of variables
Are at a more concrete level than concepts
Represent only a portion of the concept
Several variables may be used to represent one concept
Types of variables
Independent variables
Dependent variables
Research variables or concepts
Extraneous variables
Demographic variables
Independent variable
the stimulus or activity manipulated or varied by the research to cause an effect on dependent variables
It is also called the treatment or experimental variables
Dependent variable
the outcome or response the researcher wants to predict or explain
Changes in the dependent variable are presumed to be caused by the independent variable
Research variable or concept
These are the qualities, properties, or characteristics identified in the research purpose and objectives or questions that are observed or measured in a study
They are used when the intent is to observe or measure variables as they exist in a natural setting without manipulation
Extraneous variables
They can interfere with obtaining clear understanding of relational or causal dynamics in the study
They can be recognized or unrecognized and controlled or uncontrolled
If the variable is not recognized until the study is in process or cannot be controlled, it is called a confounding variable
An environmental variable is an uncontrolled variable relating to the setting
Demographic variable
Contain sample characteristics of subjects
May include age, education, gender, ethnic origin, income, medical diagnosis, etc.
Demographic data are analyzed to develop sample characteristics
Are found in both Quantitative and Qualitative research studies.
Operationalization
translating downward to more concrete level
Moves from concept to variable to measures
Conceptual definition
Abstract meaning of a variable that usually is based on theory
Operational definition
Way of defining a variable that makes it measurable or manipulable in real world
example: Smoking rates that were monitored through use of self-report data and validated by corroborating reports from friends and family members. Participants who varied in their answers from their significant contacts or could not be reached by telephone were considered ongoing smokers and were included in the resulting relapse rates.