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ruled much of central italy; aristocracy of nobles, led by a king, controlled each city state


thing of the people


most powerful body in early Republic; served for life;made laws; at first only patricians


elected by senators; one term; initially patrician only; supervised business of government and controlled armies


made up of plebians; could veto laws harmful to Plebians


crazy Roman emperor who appointed his horse consul

Edict of Milan

Christianity became a religion approved by the emperor (Constantine)

Western Empire

the region that included Britain, Gaul, Italy, Africa, and Spain, and was not very civilized (Catholic Church)

Eastern Empire

the region that included Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Europe, and was very prosperous (Greek Orthodox Church)


a philosophy of life that encourages virtue, duty, and endurance

Pax Romana

the period of time between 27 BC and 180 AD - peace and prosperity


Caesar's adopted son, perhaps Rome's ablest emperor


long, bridgelike structure that carried water from nearby hills to centers of population

Julian Emperors

descendants from Caesar's family who ruled


a specially privileged family or citizen, upper class


a free common citizen, but had little power


a political unit that is not ruled by a monarch, and in which citizens vote for leaders


"senate and Roman people" 2 groups that were the heart of the Roman government

Twelve Tables

the set of Roman laws which helped resolve the conflicts between patricians and plebians

Punic Wars

the series of wars between Rome and Carthage for control of Sicily and lands west of the Mediterranean Sea, that Rome eventually won


the former Phoenician colony that was destroyed by Romans in Punic Wars

Julius Caesar

famous Roman ruler who wanted to help the poor; emerged from chaos of civil wars to take charge of Republic


Caesar's old friend who aided in his murder


aka Augustus - Caesar's grandnephew who ruled Rome for 41 years - start of Pax Romana


emperor who passed the Edict of Milan; proclaimed tolerance of christianity

Crossing the Rubicon

refers to making a decision that you can't go back on, like when Caesar had to cross this river

Lasting principles of law developed by Romans

innocent until proven guilty; accused allowed to face accuser and offer defense;clearly establish guilt through evidence; judges interpret law and make fair decisions

cultures which contributed to Greco-Roman civilization

Greek, Hellenistic, Roman


collected all of laws of ancient Rome and produced Body of Civil law - Justinian's Code

Cause and Effect: Rome defeated carthage and Sicily

Hannibal brought 2nd Punic War to Italy, defeated Romans at Cannae

cause and Effect: Marius recruited armies promising them land/required oath of loyalty

recruited armies by promising them land - roman army no longer under govt control/power rested in hands of generals

Cause and Effect: Sulla used army to seize govt. power

restored power to govt with strong senate but set precedent for military coups

Cause and Effect: ceasar filled senate with his own supporters

power of Senate weakened; Ceasar assasinated

Cause and effect: Economic and social policies of Diocletian and Constantine based on coercion and control

contributed to Empire's eventual collapse

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