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ruled much of central italy; aristocracy of nobles, led by a king, controlled each city state
elected by senators; one term; initially patrician only; supervised business of government and controlled armies
the region that included Britain, Gaul, Italy, Africa, and Spain, and was not very civilized (Catholic Church)
the region that included Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Europe, and was very prosperous (Greek Orthodox Church)
the set of Roman laws which helped resolve the conflicts between patricians and plebians
the series of wars between Rome and Carthage for control of Sicily and lands west of the Mediterranean Sea, that Rome eventually won
famous Roman ruler who wanted to help the poor; emerged from chaos of civil wars to take charge of Republic
Crossing the Rubicon
refers to making a decision that you can't go back on, like when Caesar had to cross this river
Lasting principles of law developed by Romans
innocent until proven guilty; accused allowed to face accuser and offer defense;clearly establish guilt through evidence; judges interpret law and make fair decisions
Cause and Effect: Rome defeated carthage and Sicily
Hannibal brought 2nd Punic War to Italy, defeated Romans at Cannae
cause and Effect: Marius recruited armies promising them land/required oath of loyalty
recruited armies by promising them land - roman army no longer under govt control/power rested in hands of generals
Cause and Effect: Sulla used army to seize govt. power
restored power to govt with strong senate but set precedent for military coups
Cause and Effect: ceasar filled senate with his own supporters
power of Senate weakened; Ceasar assasinated
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