Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
AP Psychology - Biological Bases of Behavior
Important terms & important people in the unit of Biological Bases of Behavior
Terms in this set (87)
Absolute Refractory Period
The minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin.
A brief change in a neuron's electrical charge.
Afferent Nerve Fibers
In the nervous system, these carry nerve impulses from receptors or sense organs toward the central nervous system. They are also referred to as sensory or receptor neurons.
A chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter.
A roughly almond-shaped mass of gray matter deep inside each cerebral hemisphere, associated with the sense of smell.
A chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter.
Loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage.
A region of the brain that connects sensory and motor areas, and thought to be concerned with higher mental activities.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
The system of nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands.
A long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the neuron cell body to other neurons, or to muscles or glands (which impulses are conducted from the cell).
An interdisciplinary field that studies the influence of genetic factors on behavioral traits.
A region of the brain concerned with the production of speech, located in the cortex of the dominant frontal lobe.
1848-1905; Field: physician, anatomist, psychiatrist, neuropathologist; Contributions: pursuing his own research into the effects of brain disease on speech and language, noticed that not all language deficits were the result of damage to Broca's area. Rather, he found that damage to the left posterior, superior temporal gyrus resulted in deficits in language comprehension. This area was named after him.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
The brain and the spinal cord.
The convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum - intricately twisted.
The right and the left halves of the cerebrum.
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
A solution that fills the hollow cavities (ventricles) of the brain and circulates around the brain and spinal cord.
Brain - the principal and most anterior part of the brain in vertebrates, located in the front area of the skull and consisting of two hemispheres, left and right, separated b a fissure. It is responsible for the integration of complex and coordination of voluntary activity in the body.
1809-1882; Field: geology, biology; Contributions: transmutation of species, natural selection, evolution by common descent; Studies: "The Origin of Species" catalogs his voyage on the Beagle
Threadlike strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules that carry genetic information.
The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres.
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
A gene whose influence is masked when paired genes are the same (homozygous).
Efferent Nerve Fibers
Axons that carry information outward from the central nervous system to the periphery (edge) of the body.
Electrical Stimulation of the Brain (ESB)
Sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate (activate) it.
A device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp.
A group of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloodstream that help control bodily functioning.
The entire family of internally produced chemicals that resemble opiates (morphinelike effects) in structure and effects.
An electric potential that increases the likelihood that a postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials.
An automatic response to an experience that is perceived to be a threat to survival.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging - a form of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain that registers blood flow to functioning areas of the brain.
The largest and most complicated region of the brain, encompassing a variety of structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum.
Each of the paired lobes of the brain lying immediately behind the forehead, including areas concerned with behavior, learning, personality, and voluntary movement.
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.
The process of determining the location and chemical sequence of specific genes on specific chromosomes.
A type of cell that surrounds nerve cells and holds them in place. These cells also insulate nerve cells from each other.
The situation that occurs when two genes in a specific pair are different.
The part of the brain that includes the cerebellum and two structures found in the lower part of the brainstem, the medulla and the pons.
The situation that occurs when two genes in a specific pair are the same.
The chemical substances released by the endocrine glands.
A structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs.
An electric potential that decreases the likelihood that a postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials.
A neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc.
Destroying a piece of the brain.
A densely connected network of structures roughly located along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas.
The inner region of an organ or tissue, especially when it is distinguishable from the outer region or cortex (as in kidney, an adrenal gland, or hair).
1939-Present; Field: psychology; Contributions: one of the leading researchers in cognitive neuroscience, the study of the neural basis of mind
The segment of the brain stem that lies between the hindbrain and the forebrain.
The part of the cerebral cortex in the brain where the nerve impulses originate that initiate voluntary muscular activity.
A nerve cell forming part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging - The use of nuclear magnetic resonance of protons to produce proton density images.
The changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent (coming) generations.
Insulating material, derived from glial cells, that encases some axons of neurons.
Bundles of neuron fibers (axons) that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system.
Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information.
Chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another.
The rearmost lobe in each cerebral hemisphere of the brain.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Originates in the brain stem and lower part of the spinal cord; opposes physiological effects of the sympathetic nervous systems.
Either of the paired lobes of the brain at the top of the head, including areas concerned with the receptions and correlation of sensory information.
1824-1880; Field: physician, anatomist, and anthropologist; Contributions: research on a region of the frontal lobe that has been named after him
Peripheral Nervous System
All those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord.
Positron Emission Tomography - a nuclear medicine imaging technique which produces a 3D image or picture of functional processes in the body.
The "master gland" of the endocrine system; it releases a great variety of hormones that fan out through the body, stimulating actions in the other endocrine glands.
The adaptability of an organism to changes in its environment or differences between its various habitats.
Characteristics that are influenced by more than one pair of genes.
The part of the brain stem that links the medulla oblongata and the thalamus.
Postsynaptic Potential (PSP)
A voltage change at the receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane.
The part of the cerebral cortex at the very front of the brain. It is involved with higher cognitive and emotional functions including short-term memory & learning.
A gene that is expressed when paired genes are heterozygous (different).
The stable, negative charge of a neuron when it is inactive.
A diffuse network of nerve pathways in the brain stem connecting the spinal cord, cerebrum, and cerebellum, and mediating the overall level of consciousness.
A process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane.
1913-1994; Field: neuropsychologist, neurobiologist; Contributions: won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work with split-brain research
Region of the cerebral cortex concerned with receiving and interpreting sensory information from various parts of the body.
A neuron conducting impulses inwards to the brain or spinal cord.
The cell body of a neuron; it contains the nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells.
Somatic Nervous System
The system of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors.
A procedure in which the bundle of fibers that connects the cerebral hemispheres (the corpus callosum) is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures.
Sympathetic Nervous System
One of the two main parts of the autonomic nervous system, along with enteric and parasympathetic systems; its general action is to mobilize the body's nervous system's fight-or-flight response.
A junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to the next.
A microscopic gap between the terminal button of a neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron.
Also known as neurotransmitter vesicles - they store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Each of the paired lobes of the brain lying beneath the temples, including areas concerned with the understanding of speech.
Terminal Buttons (Axon Terminals)
Small knobs at the end of axons that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters.
A structure in the forebrain through which all sensory information (except smell) must pass to get to the cerebral cortex.
The minimum amount of stimulation needed to start a neural impulse (electrical impulses that travel throughout the body carrying important information).
A region of the brain concerned with the comprehension of language.
Sets with similar terms
Unit 3 - Biological Basis
Psychology Chapter 2: The Brain and Beha…
Other sets by this creator
AP English- Literary Devices
Unit 2 Biological Bases of Behavior Voca…
Mr Ruby's Vocabulary Feb 2nd/6th
Which of the following statements is best explained by research on depth perception using the visual cliff? a. Binocular depth cues develop before monocular depth cues. b. Monocular depth cues develop before binocular depth cues. c. Human infants are born with an innate sense of depth. d. Human infants must learn to perceive depth. e. Humans do not develop the perception of depth until 24 months of age.
Which lobe of the brain is located in the top rear of the brain? a. Occipital. b. Parietal. c. Frontal. d. Temporal. e. Corpus callosum.
After 10 years of smoking, Elaine is ready to quit. She pays a visit to a hypnotist in an effort to quit. How might the hypnotist use the following to help Elaine quit smoking? • Posthypnotic suggestion • Social influence theory of hypnosis. Even though the hypnosis seems successful, Elaine is worried about the effects smoking had on her body and is interested in her health outlook now that she has quit. Provide one element of damage she has done to her body by smoking and one element of how her health will improve now that she has quit.
Match the term below with its correct definition. behaviorism A. school of psychology concerned with how mental processes help organisms adapt to environments B. the study of behavior and mental processes C. school of psychology based on the idea that our perceptions of objects are more than the sums of their parts D. mental processes E. school of psychology concerned with discovering the basic elements of consciousness F. the theory that people can change their environments or create new ones G. a group of people who share a common culture race, or national origin H. school of psychology concerned with the scientific study of obseivable actions I. the theory that experiences often remind us of similar experiences in the past J. school of psychology that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives in human behavior