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Statistical Reasoning in Everyday LIfe

### Once researchers have gathered their _______, they must __________ them. One simple way of visually representing data is to use a ___________. It is important to read the _____________ and note the ___________ to avoid being misled by misrepresented data.

data; organize; bar graph; scale labels; range

### The three measures of central tendency are the ___________, the ___________ and the ___________.

mode; median; mean

### The mean is computed as the ______ _______of all the scores divided by the _____________ of scores.

total sum; number

### When a distribution is lopsided, or _________, the ____________ (mean/median/mode) can be biased by a few extreme scores.

skewed; mean

### Averages derived from scores with ________ (high/low) variability are more reliable than those with ___________ (high/low) variability.

low; high

### The measures of variation include the _______ and the __________________ _________________.

range; standard deviation

### The range provides a(n) _________ (crude/accurate) estimate of variation because it ___________ (is/is not) influenced by extreme scores.

crude; is

### The standard deviation is a ___________ (more accurate/less accurate) measure of variation than the range. Unlike the range, the standard deviation ___________ (does/does not) use information from each score in the distribution.

more accurate; does

### The symmetrical, bell-shaped distribution in which most scores fall near the __________ with fewer and fewer near the extremes is called the ___________ ____________.

mean; normal curve (normal distribution)

### It is safer to generalize from a __________ sample than from a _______________ sample.

representative; biased

### Averages are more reliable when they are based on scores with __________ (high/low) variability.

low

### Small samples provide a ________ (more/less) reliable basis for generalizing than large samples.

less

### Tests of statistical ____________ are used to estimate whether observed differences are real - that is, to make sure that they are not simply the result of _________ variation. The differences are probably real if the sample averages are __________ and the difference between them is _____________ (relatively small/relatively large).

significance; chance; reliable; relatively large