13 terms

Chapter 4 Vocabulary

STUDY
PLAY
Acculturation
Cultural modification resulting from intercultural borrowing. Refers to the change that occurs in the culture of indigenous peoples when contact is made with a society that is technologically superior.
Altutudinal Zones
The five vertical regions defined by physical environmental zones at various elevations, particularly in the highlands of South and Middle America. They are Tierra Caliente, Tierra Templada, Tierra Fria, Tierra Helada, and Tierra Nevada.
Archipelago
A set of islands grouped closely together, usually elongated into a chain.
Culture Hearth
Heartland, source area, innovation center; Place of origin of a major culture.
Dry Canal
An overland rail and/or road corridor across an isthmus dedicated to performing the transit functions of a canalized waterway.
Hacienda
Sometimes equated with the plantation, but there are important differences between these two times of agriculture enterprise. The largest estate in a Spanish-speaking country.
Land Bridge
A narrow isthmian link between two large landmasses. They are temporary features subject to appearance and disappearance as the land or sea level rises and falls.
Mainland-Rimland Framework
Twofold regionalization of the Middle American realm based on its modern cultural history. The Euro-Amerindian Mainland, stretching from Mexico to Panama, was a self-sufficient zone dominated by hacienda land tenure.
Maquiladora
The assembly plants in Mexico. First constructed in the US border zone, these assembly plants are now also found in other parts of Mexico. These foreign-owned factories assemble imported components and/or raw materials, and then export finished manufactures, mainly to the United States.
Mestizo
Derived from the Latin word for mixed. A person of mixed European (white) and Amerindian ancestry.
Mulatto
A person of mixed African (black) and European (white) ancestry.
Plantation
A large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all of these were established within the tropics; In recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives.
Transculturation
Cultural borrowing and two-way exchanges that occur when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact.