Anatomy Final Exam
Blood-Brain-Barrier lets in?
water, oxygen, alcohol, nicotine, anesthetics
Cerebrum & Cerebellum contain thick folds called ___, with the purpose of?
Gryi, to increase surface area
Two cerebral hempisheres are separated into right/left hemp. by a deep groove called the?
Cell bodies of cerebral and cerebellum neurons are located where?
Cerebrospinal fluid serves to?
Support weight of brain, remove metabolic wastes, stable chemical environment, cushion brain
Cerebral cortex concerned with hearing?
Comprehension for written words?
White matter of cerebellum constitues its?
Right and Left cerebral hemp. are joined by?
Optic nerve becomes optic tract when?
where they cris cross, or the Optic Chiasma
3 Meninges (from outside to inside)
1) Dura mater, 2) arachnoid mater, 3) pia mater
Which lobe of the cerebrum is most concerned with vision?
hunger, sex drive, sleepiness, blood pressure
One of the functions associated with limbic system?
feeling of happiness, fear, anger
What waves are predominate when doing a mental task?
____ line the ventricles of the brain
travel at the same speed in all nerve fibers
In a ____ neuronal circuit, input to one neuron leads to multiple neurons, which output to other neruons
Loosely coordinated core of gray matter in midbrain, pons, and medulla
Hearing receptors are located where?
Sound waves entering external auditory canal hit eardrum, know as
Cornea, aq. humor, lens, vitreous humor
sex linked, lack of rods and cones, lack of red/green most commen
Portion of eye that regulates the opening controlling the amount of light entering the eye?
White of the eye
What is true about lyzozymes?
Destory bacteria, enzymes, stimulate rods and cones
The ___ contains nuclei that control coughing, sneezing, swallowing, vomiting
Most finely detailed images are produced by?
In inner ear, transducer that converts vibrations caused by sound to nerve impulses is the ____?
Organ of corti
All receptors for _____ are confined to head and are innervated by cranial nervers
leads from nasopharynx to middle ear
Taste buds are found on all lingual papillae except for ____?
Sense equilibrium of head and body with?
When viewing objects up close to the eye, the eye makes an adjustment called?
Footplate of the stapes covers an opening called?
Blind spot in each visual field is a region in which?
Optic nerve leves the eye
Semicircular ducts are filled with?
Loudness of a sound correlated with the _____ of the sound wave?
Convergence of the eyes when focusing on a nearby objects is achieved by?
Taste cells produce all the sensations of
salty, bitter, sour, sweet
Only two crainial nerves are completely sensory (#)?
One and Two
The olfactory recepts are examples of?
Which of the following is a cranial nerve involved with taste or smell?
Vagus, oflactory nerve, glossopharyngeal, facial nerve
Sensorineural deafness can result from excessie earwax or a perforated eardrum (t/f)?
When does dreaming occur
What is a somethetic sensation?
taste, temp, touch, pain
paralysis of crain nerve VII cannot control facial muscles
abnormal muscle tone, often from trauma at birth
acute inflammation of brain, often bacterial
loss of peripheral vision, increased intraocular pressure
pain in eyes, lips, forehead, jaw, can lead to tooth extractions
Controlled by the Vestible, determines the orientations of the head when the body is not moving
What is not a somesthetic sensation?
Pathway for detecting odors?
Olfactory cells, olfactory hairs, olfactory lobe
Almost all sensory signals pass through ____ on the way to the cerebrum
The blind spot in each visual field is a region in which ____?
Optic disk, no rods or cones here, where optic nerve leaves the brain to take impulses to the cerebrum
What is an example of an effector?
Muscles and glands
Processing, storing, and retrieving info. is the function of what nervous system?
Central nervous system
The brain and spinal cord constitute the ___ nervous system?
Central nervous system
The _____ nervous system carries the brain and spinal cord signals to other organs?
Peripheral nervous system
What happens during the rising phase of an action potential?
The sharp rise in depolarization and sodium permeability
Blood capillaries of the brain are developed by ____ which provide a barrier between the brain and neurons and capillaries?
A bipolar neuron has?
axon and single dendrite
Ganglia consist of?
a mass of nerve cell bodies
The most common structural neuron is the ____ neuron, which includes____?
axon and many dendrites
The oligondendrocyle is found in the ____ and functions to?
brain, to insulate the axons in the central nervous system of the verebrates
In an autopsy, a pathologist found an area of brain tissue with very high concentrations of microglia. That area of the brain most likely?
That area of the brain had an infection and/or inflammation
Most adult brain tumors are composed of ___ cells and cannot be treated by chemotherapy because of the ____
In this disorder, oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths of the CNS deteriorate and are replaced by hardened scar tissue?
Parinson disease is caused by degeneration of neurons that release?
Structural features of a neuron?
In what way does the intertior surface of a cell membrane of a polarized (resting) neuron differ from the external environment? The interior is?
Sequence of events during a nerve impulse?
The memory type that has the ability to hold something in mind for just a few seconds is____
Bobby learned to ride a bike at 4 and rode a lot. The next time was years later. He was pleased to find the skill was not lost. This type of memory is called____
The spinal cord is divided what regions?
A nurse pricks your finger to type your blood. You flinch at the pain, pulling back your hand. This is called the ____
Walking is controlled by groups of neurons in the spinal cord called?
The spinal cord ends at about which veretbrea?
Nerve to the pelvic region and lower limbs arise from an area of the spinal cord called the ____ enlargement?
A bundle of nerve roots that occupy the canal of vertebra L2 to S5 are called the?
Anethetics and anti-inflammatory drugs are introduced into this space in the spinal cord?
What disease has degeneration of motor neurons, and in most cases, neurons are destoryed by the inability of astrocytes to reabsorb glutamate, which allows this neurotransmitter to reach toxic levels?
The ventral root carries _____ neurons, while the dorsal root carries ____ neurons
This plexus is formed by the ventral of nerves C5 to TI. It reneurates the upper limb and some muscles of the nuck and shoulder?
A map of the cutaneous regions inneruated by specific spinal nerves is called a?
What is the somatic reflex order?
What is controlled by the autonomic nevous system?
____ blocks dopamine, reuptake, leading to a quick "high"
Wictonic receptors bind?
Quadriplegia, or paralysis of all four limbs, results from?
Spinal cord lesions
The golgi tendon reflex causes?
In the patellar tendon reflex arc, the patellar legament is stretched, which stretches the quadriceps femoris muscle. This reflex will cause the quadriceps femoris to?
An uconcious automatic response to stimulation of glanas cardiac or smooth muscle is a ___ reflex?
What sympathetic nerve pass through collateral ganglia without snapsing?
Caffine blocks the chemical called?
Sympathetic stimulation of the advenal medulla causes it to release three hormones of these three hormones ____ is the primary hormone released?
The system that stimulates normal conditions in the body such as lowered heart rate, increased gastrointestinal activities (digestion), secretion, and defecation is the?
Your ___ division will stimulate an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and reduce the blood fow to your skin and digestive tract?
Your ___ system will enable you to circle the correct anwer?
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