32 terms

Psychology Vocab Ch. 7

anterograde amnesia
the inability to form new memories because of brain trauma
a mental process for organizing information into meaningful units, or "chunks"
context-dependent memories
information that is more easily retrieved in the context in which it was encoded and stored
disintegration; in psychology, the fading away of memory
echoic memory
the sensory register in which traces of sounds are held and may be retrieved within several seconds
eidetic imagery
the maintenance of a very detailed visual memory over several months
elaborative rehearsal
a memory device that creates a meaningful link between new information and the information already known
the translation of information into a form that can be stored in memory
episodic memory
a memory of a specific experienced event
explicit memory
a memory of specific information
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of emotionally significant moments or events
iconic memory
the sensory register that briefly holds mental images of visual stimuli
implicit memory
a memory that consists of the skills and procedures one has learned
infantile amnesia
the inability to remember events that occurred during one's early years (before age three)
the process that occurs when new information appears in short-term memory and replaces what was already there
long-term memory
the type or stage of memory capable of large and relatively permanent storage
maintenance rehearsal
the repetition of new information in an attempt to keep from forgetting it
the processes by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved
primacy effect
the tendency to recall the initial item or items in a series
retrieval of learned information
recency effect
the tendency to recall the last item in a series
a memory process in which one identifies objects or events that have previously been encountered
learning material a second time, usually in less time than it was originally learned
the process of recalling information from memory storage
retrograde amnesia
the failure to remember events that occurred prior to a physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma
an idea or mental framework that helps one organize and interpret information
semantic memory
a memory of general knowledge and information that can be recalled
sensory memory
the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
short-term memory
memory that holds information briefly before it is stored or forgotten
state-dependent memories
memories in which information is more easily retrieved when one is in the same psychological or emotional state as when the memory was originally encoded or learned
the maintenance of encoded information over time
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
the belief that a piece of information is stored in our memory although we cannot retrieve it easily