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anterograde amnesia

the inability to form new memories because of brain trauma


a mental process for organizing information into meaningful units, or "chunks"

context-dependent memories

information that is more easily retrieved in the context in which it was encoded and stored


disintegration; in psychology, the fading away of memory

echoic memory

the sensory register in which traces of sounds are held and may be retrieved within several seconds

eidetic imagery

the maintenance of a very detailed visual memory over several months

elaborative rehearsal

a memory device that creates a meaningful link between new information and the information already known


the translation of information into a form that can be stored in memory

episodic memory

a memory of a specific experienced event

explicit memory

a memory of specific information

flashbulb memory

a clear memory of emotionally significant moments or events

iconic memory

the sensory register that briefly holds mental images of visual stimuli

implicit memory

a memory that consists of the skills and procedures one has learned

infantile amnesia

the inability to remember events that occurred during one's early years (before age three)


the process that occurs when new information appears in short-term memory and replaces what was already there

long-term memory

the type or stage of memory capable of large and relatively permanent storage

maintenance rehearsal

the repetition of new information in an attempt to keep from forgetting it


the processes by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved

primacy effect

the tendency to recall the initial item or items in a series


retrieval of learned information

recency effect

the tendency to recall the last item in a series


a memory process in which one identifies objects or events that have previously been encountered


learning material a second time, usually in less time than it was originally learned


the process of recalling information from memory storage

retrograde amnesia

the failure to remember events that occurred prior to a physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma


an idea or mental framework that helps one organize and interpret information

semantic memory

a memory of general knowledge and information that can be recalled

sensory memory

the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system

short-term memory

memory that holds information briefly before it is stored or forgotten

state-dependent memories

memories in which information is more easily retrieved when one is in the same psychological or emotional state as when the memory was originally encoded or learned


the maintenance of encoded information over time

tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

the belief that a piece of information is stored in our memory although we cannot retrieve it easily

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