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Terms in this set (48)
The study of bodies, masses, and forces at rest or in a constant unchanged motion.
The study of bodies, masses, and forces when they are in motion.
The study of motion, including the patterns and speed of movement of the body segments, without consideration given to the mass of the body or the forces acting upon it.
The study of the effects of forces on the motion of a body or system of bodies, especially of forces that do not originate within the system itself.
A branch of biomechanics centered on improving sport performance by athletes through the improvement in movement techniques or the development of equipment.
A branch of biomechanics centered on improving the ability of an injured or disabled individual to perform activities of daily living including work and leisure activities, physical activity, or exercise.
When all points of the body are moving in the same direction at the same speed, and travel the same distance.
When all points on a body move in a straight line, the same distance, and with no change in direction.
Occurs when all points on a body move the same distance but the paths followed by the points on the object are curved.
The motion of a body about a fixed point or fixed axis
occurs when the translation and rotation movements are combined.
Cartesian coordinate system
A system in which the location of a point is given by coordinates that represent its distances from perpendicular lines that intersect at a point called the origin
Posterior (dorsal) ; Anterior (ventral)
Frontal (body movement)
Abduction, adduction, lateral flexion, elevation and depression, deviation, eversion, and inversion
Sagittal (body movement)
Flexion, extension, and hyperextension
Superior (cephalic); Inferior (caudal)
Transverse (body movement)
Rotation, supination, pronation, abduction, and adduction
Requires the progressive identification of the aspects critical to the movement through a systematic process that often requires the analyst to view multiple trials from different viewpoints.
Forces that act upon a body or object including those from gravity, the muscles, and external to the body.
A movement that results in a lengthening of the muscle.
The production of force at one end of a body that results in a twisting motion whereas the other end of the body remains fixed or moves in the opposite direction
loss of joint function and significant disability; less cartilage
study of the interaction between humans, the objects they use, and the environments in which they function
When the expected force production of a muscle, tendon, ligament, cartilage, or bone cannot be achieved or maintained.
First, coaches may use their knowledge of biomechanics to correct an athlete's technique to improve the execution of a movement skill. In this instance, coaches use quali- tative biomechanical analysis methods to affect changes in the technique of the athlete. Second, research in biomechanics may discover a new and more effective technique for performing a sports skill.
Biomechanics also contributes to performance enhancement by improving designs for the shoes, apparel, and equipment used in various sports
A biomechanical analysis of skill performances may identify deficiencies in technique that can be improved by altering training.
The use of biomechanical analyses helps athletic trainers and other sports medi- cine professionals identify factors that have caused an injury, how to prevent the injury from recurring (or occurring in the first place), and what activities and exercises may assist with rehabilitation from the injury.
Sequential kinetic link principle
When segments of the body and joint rotations occur in a specific sequence or order.
Simultaneous kinetic link principle
When major movements of the body occur at the same time.
Compressive force (compression)
Force that tends to shorten or squeeze something, decreas- ing its volume.
tensile force (tension)
A force which tends to stretch or elongate something.
Force acting on a substance in a direction perpendicular to the extension of the substance
When a single force large enough to cause an injury acts on body tissues, the injury is termed acute.
A physical injury can also result from the repeated action of relatively small forces acting on tissue.
rate of change in velocity of an object or the human body
external force causes a change in the shape or structure of an object or body component
Tendency of a body to maintain its current state of motion, whether motionless or moving with a constant velocity.
Quantity of matter contained in an object.
Something that causes a change in the motion of a body.
Center of gravity
Point around which the body's weight is equally balanced, no matter how the body is positioned.
Force with which an object is attracted toward the center of the earth by gravity; weight depends on an object's mass and the strength of
the gravitational pull.
Force per unit area that one region of a gas, liquid, or solid exerts on another region.
Amount of space occupied by a three-dimensional object or region of space.
Measure of the quantity of some physical property (usually mass) per unit length, area, or volume
Tendency of a force applied to an object to make the object rotate about an axis.
Change of momentum of a body or physical system over a time interval; equal to the force applied times the length of the time interval over which it is applied.
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