How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

BIOL 228 CH17--Blood

STUDY
PLAY
albumin
Found in plasma, the non-living viscous fluid part of the blood
7.35-7.45
The pH of blood
5-6 liters
The amount of blood in an adult male
cytoskeleton
maintains the shape of erythrocytes
45
erythrocyte percent of blood volume
hemoglobin
consists of 4 hemes (contain iron) plus 1 globin (protein)
transport oxygen
function of hemoglobin
erythropoietin
from kidneys; stimulates RBC precursor cells in marrow to divide
120 days
lifespan of RBCs
bilirubin
the unusable part of heme; disposed of by the liver
leukocyte
white blood cell
1
leukocyte percent of blood volume
chemotaxis
leukocytes capability to follow chemical "scent" where chemical concentration is the highest
margination
leukocytes line up against BV wall
diapedesis
the capability of leukocyte to squeeze thru capillary wall into tissue areas
amoeboid movement
the capability of leukocyte to move by itself
neutrophil
leukocyte, granulocyte; 50% of WBC; faint granules, phagocytes associated with acute infections
defensins
granules within neutrophils that are antibiotic-like proteins that poke holes in cell membranes
eosinophil
leukocyte, ganulocyte; 1-4% of WBC; dark red granules which are enzymes that kill parasitic worms; they decrease the inflammatory response
basophil
leukocyte, granulocyte; 0.5% of WBC; blue/black granules: contain histamine; increase the inflammatory response
histamine
potent vasodilator: increases diameter of BV; found within basophils
agranulocyte
a leukocyte with no distinct granules
lymphocyte
leukocyte, agranulocyte; 40% of WBC; B and T cells of immunity; not too much larger than RBC; sliver of pale bluish cytoplasm can be seen
monocyte
leukocyte; agranulocyte; 5% of WBC; called macrophages if in tissues; Phagocytes associated with chronic infections; pale blue cytoplasm; c-shaped or round nucleus
platelets
fragments of a large cell called the megakaryocyte; "bubbles of membrane with liquid in them"
plasma
55% of the volume of whole blood; 90% water: Ions, nutrients, wastes, hormones, oxygen, & carbon dioxide; 8% albumin (protein for viscosity & buffer)
hemostasis
the stoppage of blood flow; contains 3 phases: vascular spasm, formation of the platelet plug, and coagulation
vascular spasm
1st stage of hemostasis: constriction of the blood vessel; reduces flow up to 30 minutes (only 30 due to fatigue)
formation of the platelet plug
2nd stage of hemostasis: temporary seal--gives us more time
broken endothelial cells
a substep of the formation of the platelet plug which exposes collagen which platelets stick to.
platelets degranulate
a substep of the formation of the platelet plug in which platelets release serotonin and thromboxane which enhance the vascular spasm and ADP causes additional platelets to aggregate (stick).
coagulation
the 3rd stage of hemostasis: 3 events ocur in the transformation of liquid blood to a gel
procoagulant
enhance coagulation
anticoagulant
decrease coagulation
formation of clot
usually takes 3-6 minutes to start; part of the process of coagulation
enzyme cascade
formation of one substance causes the formation of another which in turn causes formation of yet another
coagulation cascade
3 steps in sequence: 1. formation of prothrombin activator(PA): an enzyme (need factor X plus Ca++ plus thromboplastin to get PA, 2. conversion of prothrombin to thrombin (another enzyme), 3. conversion of fibrinogen (soluble plasma protein) to fibrin (insoluble protein threads)
clot retraction
the clot shrinks, bringing cut edges closer together; platelets act like smooth muscle cells, squeezing down on themselves and making the clot shrink
fibrinolysis
dispose of the clot when repair is nearing completion; healing tissues release Plasminogen Activator which starts another cascade to dissolve the clot.