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Found in plasma, the non-living viscous fluid part of the blood


The pH of blood

5-6 liters

The amount of blood in an adult male


maintains the shape of erythrocytes


erythrocyte percent of blood volume


consists of 4 hemes (contain iron) plus 1 globin (protein)

transport oxygen

function of hemoglobin


from kidneys; stimulates RBC precursor cells in marrow to divide

120 days

lifespan of RBCs


the unusable part of heme; disposed of by the liver


white blood cell


leukocyte percent of blood volume


leukocytes capability to follow chemical "scent" where chemical concentration is the highest


leukocytes line up against BV wall


the capability of leukocyte to squeeze thru capillary wall into tissue areas

amoeboid movement

the capability of leukocyte to move by itself


leukocyte, granulocyte; 50% of WBC; faint granules, phagocytes associated with acute infections


granules within neutrophils that are antibiotic-like proteins that poke holes in cell membranes


leukocyte, ganulocyte; 1-4% of WBC; dark red granules which are enzymes that kill parasitic worms; they decrease the inflammatory response


leukocyte, granulocyte; 0.5% of WBC; blue/black granules: contain histamine; increase the inflammatory response


potent vasodilator: increases diameter of BV; found within basophils


a leukocyte with no distinct granules


leukocyte, agranulocyte; 40% of WBC; B and T cells of immunity; not too much larger than RBC; sliver of pale bluish cytoplasm can be seen


leukocyte; agranulocyte; 5% of WBC; called macrophages if in tissues; Phagocytes associated with chronic infections; pale blue cytoplasm; c-shaped or round nucleus


fragments of a large cell called the megakaryocyte; "bubbles of membrane with liquid in them"


55% of the volume of whole blood; 90% water: Ions, nutrients, wastes, hormones, oxygen, & carbon dioxide; 8% albumin (protein for viscosity & buffer)


the stoppage of blood flow; contains 3 phases: vascular spasm, formation of the platelet plug, and coagulation

vascular spasm

1st stage of hemostasis: constriction of the blood vessel; reduces flow up to 30 minutes (only 30 due to fatigue)

formation of the platelet plug

2nd stage of hemostasis: temporary seal--gives us more time

broken endothelial cells

a substep of the formation of the platelet plug which exposes collagen which platelets stick to.

platelets degranulate

a substep of the formation of the platelet plug in which platelets release serotonin and thromboxane which enhance the vascular spasm and ADP causes additional platelets to aggregate (stick).


the 3rd stage of hemostasis: 3 events ocur in the transformation of liquid blood to a gel


enhance coagulation


decrease coagulation

formation of clot

usually takes 3-6 minutes to start; part of the process of coagulation

enzyme cascade

formation of one substance causes the formation of another which in turn causes formation of yet another

coagulation cascade

3 steps in sequence: 1. formation of prothrombin activator(PA): an enzyme (need factor X plus Ca++ plus thromboplastin to get PA, 2. conversion of prothrombin to thrombin (another enzyme), 3. conversion of fibrinogen (soluble plasma protein) to fibrin (insoluble protein threads)

clot retraction

the clot shrinks, bringing cut edges closer together; platelets act like smooth muscle cells, squeezing down on themselves and making the clot shrink


dispose of the clot when repair is nearing completion; healing tissues release Plasminogen Activator which starts another cascade to dissolve the clot.

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