a bacterial cell is placed in distilled water. Which of the following will happen
the cell will gain water
The filament and basal body are associated with which external structures found in some bacterial cells?
Which of the following processes can be either specific or non-specific depending upon the particular moleules that are transported?
PHB is associat4ed with which of the following structures in the cytoplasm of some bacteria?
a bacterial cell processes a gycocalyx. which of the following is not true?
it will be engulfed more quickly by defensive cell of the host
IF A EUKARYOTIC CELL SUFFERS DAMAGE TO ITS MITOCHONDRIA WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING Processes of life would be most immediately affected?
the archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways except
the nucleotides that make up the dna
which of the following would be expected to be present in a bio-medical analysis of an archaeal cell?
archael cells have cytoplasmic membranes containng branched hydrocarbons as well as membrane proteins
A bacterial cell stains positive with the acid-fast stain. which of the following is not true?
some gram postive cells contain waxy lipids that make them hard to stain with the gram stain. these cells are commonly members of the genus Mycob acterium
a scientist is using an objective lense of 40x magnification on his microscope. if the ocular lense magnifies 10x , what is the total magnification being used to visualize the specimen?
which of the following groups of organisms does not belong in the domain eukarya?
bacteria and archaea
plaques are associated with which method of laboratory identification of microorganisms
the traditional defination fo a species does not work very well for asexual organisms because
they generally do not arise as a result of interbreeding
what microscope techniques does not produce a naturally colored image
transmission electron microscope
staining is an important way to improve which of the following aspect of microscopy?
resolution and contrast
put the following steps of specimen preperation and staining in order 1, application fo staing dyes 2 fixation 3 smearpreperation
if a microbiologist omited the decolorizer from a gram-stained smear, which of the following would happen
all cells in the smear would be purple
which of the following types of microscopes can magnify more than 2000x
a transmission electron microscope
the reagents crystal violet , iodine and safranin are all associated with which of the following staining procedures
the gram stain
leeuwenhoke's microscope had a resolving power of one mcrometer this means that
the microscope could distinguish objects that were more than one micrometer apart
put the following taxonomic groups in order, from broadest group to most specific 1 phylum 2 genus 3 family 4 order
which of the following types of microscopes reveals the surface features of extremely small objects
atomic force microscope
a microbiologist is using hear to drive the stain carbolfuchsin into a smear. which of the following staining procedures is being used?
the acid-fast stain
pure water has a neutural pH because
it dissociates into equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions
in discussions of atomic mass , electrons are often ignored because
their mass makes a negligible contribution to the atoms overall mass
two atoms vastly different electronegatives can form which of the following?
in an ionic bond the extreme difference between the electronegatives of the two atoms creates a full charge on each atom, resulting in an attractive force that creates the bond
if you know that a particular chemical reaction involves the production of smaller molecules from the breakdown of larger molecules, which of the following statements would you expect to be true?
energy will be released making it an exothermic reaction. a molecule of water will be consumed in this reaction.
if you know that sodium chloride molecules contain ionic bonds, which of the following electronegatives values would be appropriate for the elements sodium and chloride?
0.9 and 3.0
an oxygen atom has 2 electron shells and 6 valence electrons. how many total electrons does this atom have
carbon has an electronegitivity of 2.5 and hydrogen has electronegegativity of .1: therefore, methane, which is composed solely of carbon and hydrogen, contains which of the following types of bonds
non-polar covalent bonds
when the nucleus of an atom contains a constant number of protons but a variable number of neutrons, the atom is called a(n)
Koch's work involving anthrax was significant because it was the first tme
a bacterium has been proven to cause a disease
which of the following groups of scientists did not contribute to research in microbial genetics?
winogradsky and beijernick
spallanzani;s experiments concerning spontaneous generation were not universally accepted because
he eliminated air form his flasks by sealing them
microbiologists study parasitic worms because
they cause disease that are diagnosed by finding microscopic eggs in clinical specimens
what was leeuwenhoek's contribution to the science of microbiology?
he was the first person to see microbes.
which of the following is true statement concerning bacteria and archaea?
no archea are known to cause disease in humans
which of the following scietist contributed to the discovery of widely effective chemotherapeutic agents in 20th centery?
how are the bacteria and the archea different form all the other cellular microbes
they have no nucleus
what did the work of lister and ehrlich have in common
they both explored the use of chemicals in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases
modern biologist hav to revise linnaeus' system of taxonomy because
he grouped all organisms into only two categories
all of the following individuals showed that cleanliness played a role in human disease except
put the following steps of Koch's postulates in order: 1 the infectious agent must be isolated and grown outside the host 2 the infectious agent caused the desease when it is introduced to a healthy, susceptible animal 3 the infectious agent must be found in every case of the disease 4 the infectious agent must be found in the diseased experimental host
which of the following fields of modern microbiology is not concerneed with the genetic characteristics of a cell
a microorganism has the following characteristics : eukaryotic , multicellular, has cell walls, and grows in long lilaments. what is its general classification
eukaryotic unicellular or multicellular photosynthetic organism with simple reproductive structures
In Woese's taxonomy, domain which includes all prokaryotic cells having archaeal rRNA sequences
prokaryotic microorganisms typically having cell walls composed of peptidoglycan. In Woese's taxonomy, domain which includes all prokaryotic cells having bacterial rRNA sequences.
branch of microbiology in which microbes are manipulated to manufacture useful products.
branch of microbiology studying the role of microorganisms in soil, water, or other habitats.
any organism made up of cells containing a nucleus composed of genetic material surrounded by a distinct membrane. Classification includes animals, plants, algae, fungi, and protozoa.
the use of recombinant DNA technology to insert a missing gene or repair a defective gene in human cells.
a typically multicellular fungus that grows as long fillaments called hyphae and reproduces by means of spores
branch of biology combining aspects of biochemistry, cell biology, and genetics to explain cell functions at the molecular level, particularly via the use of genome sequencing.
any unicellular microorganism that lacks a nucleus. Classification includes bacteria and archaea.
organic macromolecule consisting of atoms carbon, hydorgen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.
the type of synthesis reaction in which to smaller molecules are joined together by a covalent bond, and a water molecule is formed
an arrangement of atoms common to all members of a class of organic molecules, such as the amine group found in all amino acids.
the electrical attraction between a partially charged hydrogen atom and a full or partial negative charge on a different region of the same molecule or another molecule. Hydrogen bonds confer unique properties to water molecules.
a type of bond formed from the attraction of opposite electrical charges. Electrons are not shared.
any of a diverse group of organic macromolecules not composed of monomers and insoluble in water.
nonpolar covalent bond
type of chemical bond in which there is equal sharing of electrons between atoms with similar electronegativities.
polar covalent bond
type of bond in which there is unequal sharing of electrons between atoms with opposite electrical charges.
a complex macromolecule consisting of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur and important to many cell functions.
ribonucleic acid (rna)
nucleic acid consisting of nucleotides made up of phosphate, a ribose pentose sugar, in an arrangement of the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil
a triglyceride in which all the terminal carbon atoms are covalently linked to hydrogen atoms (at room temperature solid)
lipids consisting of four fused carbon rings attached to various side chains and functional groups
a triglyceride with at least one double bond between adjacent carbon atoms, and thus at least one carbon atom bound to only a single hydrogen atom.
the movement of a substance against its electrochemical gradient via carrier proteins and requiring cell energy from ATP
in cell morphology, structure composed of rotating endoflagella that allows a spirochete to " corkscrew" through its medium
glychcalyx composed of repeating units of organic chemicals firmly attached to the cells surface
internal network of fibers contributing to the basic shape of eukaryotic and rod shaped prokaryotic cells
sticky, proteinaceous, extentions of some bacterial cells that function to adhear cells to one another and to environmental surfaces
gram negitive cell
generally, a prokaryotic cell having a wall composed of a thin layer of wall materiel , an external membrane, and a paraplasmic space between ; appears pink after the gram staining procedures
gram positive cell
prokaryotic cell having a thick wall ; and bacteria, composed of a thick layer of peptidoglycan containing teichoic acids ; gram positive cells retain the crystal violet dye used in the gram staining procedure, appearing purple
deposited substances such as a lipid, gas vesicle , or magnetite , stored within the cytosol of a cell
large, interconnected polysaccaride composed of chains of two alternating sugars and cross bridges of amino acids. main component of bacterial cell walls
short, hairlike protein structures on the surface of some bacteria, Appendages that allow bacteria to attach to each other and to transfer DNA
nonmembranous organelle found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that is composed of protein and ribosomal rna and functions to make polypeptides
nonmembranous organelles in animal cells which appear to function in the formation of flagella and cilia and in cell division
threadlike mass of dna and associated histone protein that become visible during mitosis as chromosomes
active transport process, used by some eukaryotic cells, in which the pseudopodia surround a substance and move it into the cell
netlike arrangement of hollow tubuals continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope and function as a transport
A hypothesis that proposes that mitochondrion and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that began living with larger cells
active transport process, used by some eukaryotic cells, in which vesicles fuse with the cytoplasmic membrane and export their substances from the cell
in eukaryotic cells, a series of flattened, hollow sacks surrounded by phospholipid bilayers in functioning to package large molecules for export in secretory vesicles
spherical to elongated structures found in most eukaryotic cells that produce most of the atp in the cell
space in the nuclear envelope that function to control the transport of substances through it
spherical to ovoid membranous organelle containing a eukaryotic cell's primary genetic meterial
type of endoplasmic reticulum that has ribosome adhering to its outer surface; these produce proteins for transport throughout the cell
in eukaryotic cells, vesicles containing secretions packaged by the golgi body that fuse to the cytoplasmic membrane and then release their contents outside the cell via exocytosis
type of endoplasmic reticulum that lacks ribosomes and plays a role in lipid synthesis and transport
type of light microscope that uses ultraviolet lasers to illuminate florescent chemicals in a single plane of the specimen
the difference in visual intensity between two objects, or between an object and its background
A microscope that focuses an electron beam through a specimen, resulting in resolving power a thousandfold greater than that of a light microscope. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) is used to study the internal structure of thin sections of cells. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to study the fine details of cell surfaces.
type of light microscope that uses an ultraviolet light source to fluoresce objects
type of electron microscope that uses magnetic fields within a vacuum tub to scan a beam of electrons across a specimens metal-coated surface
a multiple of the magnification achieved by the objective and ocular lenses of a compound microscope
type of electron microscope which generates a beam of electrons that passes through the specimen and produces an image on a fluorescent screen
in microscopy , a technique that uses methyl alcolol or formalin to attach a smear to a slide
in microscopy, a stain using more than one dye so that different structures can be distinguished. the gram stain is the most commonly used
in microscopy , a technique that uses the heat from a flame to attach a smear to a slide
the classification method used in the Linnaean system of taxonomy, which assigns each species both a genus name and a specific epithet
method of identifying organisms in which information is arranged in paired statements, only one of which applies to any particular organism
any of the three basic types of cell groupings distinguished by carol wosese , containing the linnaean taxon of kingdoms
method of classifying microorganisms in which unknown bacteria are identified by observing plaques
in phage typing, the clear region within the bacterial lawn where growth is inhibited by bacteriophages
the study and use of immunological test to diagnose and treat disease or identify antibody or antigens