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233 terms

unit 1 test

ch1-4 microbolody
STUDY
PLAY
a bacterial cell is placed in distilled water. Which of the following will happen
the cell will gain water
the process of bring a solid substance into the cell is known as
phagocytosis
The filament and basal body are associated with which external structures found in some bacterial cells?
flagella
Which of the following processes can be either specific or non-specific depending upon the particular moleules that are transported?
facilitated diffusion
a periplasmic space is found in which of the following
gram-negitive cells only
PHB is associat4ed with which of the following structures in the cytoplasm of some bacteria?
inclusions
Archaeal flagella ______________?
roate as bacterial flagella do.
a bacterial cell processes a gycocalyx. which of the following is not true?
it will be engulfed more quickly by defensive cell of the host
which of the following is not a basic process of life?
HIBERNATION
IF A EUKARYOTIC CELL SUFFERS DAMAGE TO ITS MITOCHONDRIA WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING Processes of life would be most immediately affected?
metabolism
secretory vesicles are associated with which of the folloing?
golgi body
the hami of some archaea are used for chich wrocesses
attachment
the presence of a glycoalyx would not be expected in which of the following?
plant cells
which of the following is not a characteristic of a eukaryotic cell?
smaller than prokaryotes
the archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways except
the nucleotides that make up the dna
which of the following would be expected to be present in a bio-medical analysis of an archaeal cell?
archael cells have cytoplasmic membranes containng branched hydrocarbons as well as membrane proteins
what is not found in the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell
porins
TF is a centrosome a membranous organelle within a eukaryotic cell
false
TF sterols are a component of the eukaryotic cell
false
A bacterial cell stains positive with the acid-fast stain. which of the following is not true?
some gram postive cells contain waxy lipids that make them hard to stain with the gram stain. these cells are commonly members of the genus Mycob acterium
a scientist is using an objective lense of 40x magnification on his microscope. if the ocular lense magnifies 10x , what is the total magnification being used to visualize the specimen?
400x
a thin film of microorganism on a slide is called a
smear
which of the following groups of organisms does not belong in the domain eukarya?
bacteria and archaea
plaques are associated with which method of laboratory identification of microorganisms
phage typing
what is another name for negative stain?
a capsule stain
the traditional defination fo a species does not work very well for asexual organisms because
they generally do not arise as a result of interbreeding
what microscope techniques does not produce a naturally colored image
transmission electron microscope
staining is an important way to improve which of the following aspect of microscopy?
resolution and contrast
put the following steps of specimen preperation and staining in order 1, application fo staing dyes 2 fixation 3 smearpreperation
321
if a microbiologist omited the decolorizer from a gram-stained smear, which of the following would happen
all cells in the smear would be purple
taxonomy consists of all of the following activities except
fixation
which of the following types of microscopes can magnify more than 2000x
a transmission electron microscope
the reagents crystal violet , iodine and safranin are all associated with which of the following staining procedures
the gram stain
which of the following staing procedures does not involve basic dyes?
the negative stain
leeuwenhoke's microscope had a resolving power of one mcrometer this means that
the microscope could distinguish objects that were more than one micrometer apart
put the following taxonomic groups in order, from broadest group to most specific 1 phylum 2 genus 3 family 4 order
1,4,3,2
which of the following types of microscopes reveals the surface features of extremely small objects
atomic force microscope
a microbiologist is using hear to drive the stain carbolfuchsin into a smear. which of the following staining procedures is being used?
the acid-fast stain
which of the follwoing is not equil to 20 milimeters
5,000,000 nanometers
which of the follwoing is one-billionth of a meter?
a nanometer
KH2PO4 acts as a buffer by
absorbs excess hydrogen ions
which of the following is not a type of lipid
peptidoglycan
pure water has a neutural pH because
it dissociates into equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions
in discussions of atomic mass , electrons are often ignored because
their mass makes a negligible contribution to the atoms overall mass
all of the following are sources of organic acids except
baking soda
methane is classified as a compound because
it contains atoms of more than one element
what is the common trait of ALL lipids
they are hydrophobic
in symbol R-OH, the R stands for the ____ part of the molecule.
the variable
an endothermic reaction ___
absorbs energy
which of the following subatomic particles does not have a charge
neutrons
a synthesis reaction is also which one of the following types of reactions?
endothermic
two atoms vastly different electronegatives can form which of the following?
in an ionic bond the extreme difference between the electronegatives of the two atoms creates a full charge on each atom, resulting in an attractive force that creates the bond
if you know that a particular chemical reaction involves the production of smaller molecules from the breakdown of larger molecules, which of the following statements would you expect to be true?
energy will be released making it an exothermic reaction. a molecule of water will be consumed in this reaction.
sucrose is an example of which of the following
a disaccharide
if you know that sodium chloride molecules contain ionic bonds, which of the following electronegatives values would be appropriate for the elements sodium and chloride?
0.9 and 3.0
an oxygen atom has 2 electron shells and 6 valence electrons. how many total electrons does this atom have
8
carbon has an electronegitivity of 2.5 and hydrogen has electronegegativity of .1: therefore, methane, which is composed solely of carbon and hydrogen, contains which of the following types of bonds
non-polar covalent bonds
when the nucleus of an atom contains a constant number of protons but a variable number of neutrons, the atom is called a(n)
isotope
which of the follwoing is the most alkaline pH?
pH 13.0
who proposed the idea that cells can be classified in one of three major groups
Woese
which of the following is not an example of fungus
algae
Koch's work involving anthrax was significant because it was the first tme
a bacterium has been proven to cause a disease
which of the following groups of scientists did not contribute to research in microbial genetics?
winogradsky and beijernick
all of the following are taxonomic kingdoms that were recognized by linnaeus except
protozoa
spallanzani;s experiments concerning spontaneous generation were not universally accepted because
he eliminated air form his flasks by sealing them
which of following scientists showed that fermentation does not require living cells?
buchner
microbiologists study parasitic worms because
they cause disease that are diagnosed by finding microscopic eggs in clinical specimens
what was leeuwenhoek's contribution to the science of microbiology?
he was the first person to see microbes.
which of the following is true statement concerning bacteria and archaea?
no archea are known to cause disease in humans
which of the following scietist contributed to the discovery of widely effective chemotherapeutic agents in 20th centery?
domagk
how are the bacteria and the archea different form all the other cellular microbes
they have no nucleus
whose expedriments seemingly proved the existence of a "life force"
needham
what did the work of lister and ehrlich have in common
they both explored the use of chemicals in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases
modern biologist hav to revise linnaeus' system of taxonomy because
he grouped all organisms into only two categories
which of the following is an incorrect pairing
gram : cholera
all of the following individuals showed that cleanliness played a role in human disease except
jenner
put the following steps of Koch's postulates in order: 1 the infectious agent must be isolated and grown outside the host 2 the infectious agent caused the desease when it is introduced to a healthy, susceptible animal 3 the infectious agent must be found in every case of the disease 4 the infectious agent must be found in the diseased experimental host
3, 1,2,4
which of the following fields of modern microbiology is not concerneed with the genetic characteristics of a cell
bioremediation
a microorganism has the following characteristics : eukaryotic , multicellular, has cell walls, and grows in long lilaments. what is its general classification
fungus
Algae
eukaryotic unicellular or multicellular photosynthetic organism with simple reproductive structures
archae
In Woese's taxonomy, domain which includes all prokaryotic cells having archaeal rRNA sequences
bacteria
prokaryotic microorganisms typically having cell walls composed of peptidoglycan. In Woese's taxonomy, domain which includes all prokaryotic cells having bacterial rRNA sequences.
biochemistry
branch of chemistry which studies the chemical reactions of living things
biotechnology
branch of microbiology in which microbes are manipulated to manufacture useful products.
environmental microbiology
branch of microbiology studying the role of microorganisms in soil, water, or other habitats.
epidemiology
the study of the occurrence, distribution, and spread of diseases in humans
etiology
the study of causation of disease.
eukaryote
any organism made up of cells containing a nucleus composed of genetic material surrounded by a distinct membrane. Classification includes animals, plants, algae, fungi, and protozoa.
fungi
eukaryotic organisms that have cell walls and obtain food from other organisms.
gene therapy
the use of recombinant DNA technology to insert a missing gene or repair a defective gene in human cells.
immunology
study of the bodies specific defenses against pathogens.
microorganisms
an organism too small to be seen without a microscope.
mold
a typically multicellular fungus that grows as long fillaments called hyphae and reproduces by means of spores
molecular biology
branch of biology combining aspects of biochemistry, cell biology, and genetics to explain cell functions at the molecular level, particularly via the use of genome sequencing.
prokaryote
any unicellular microorganism that lacks a nucleus. Classification includes bacteria and archaea.
taxonomic system
a system for naming and grouping similar organisms together
yeast
a unicellular, typically oval or round fungus that usually reproduces asexually by budding.
acid
compound that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions and one or more anions.
amino acid
a monomer of polypeptides
anion
a negatively charged ion
anabolism
all of the synthesis reactions in an organism taken together.
atom
the smallest chemical unit of matter.
base
molecule that binds with hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.
buffer
a substance, such as protein, that prevents drastic changes in ph.
carbohydrates
organic macromolecule consisting of atoms carbon, hydorgen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.
catabolism
all the decomposition reactions in an organsim taken together
cation
a positively charged ion.
compound
a molecule containing atoms of more than one element.
covalent bond
the sharing of a pair of electrons by two atoms.
dehydration synthesis
the type of synthesis reaction in which to smaller molecules are joined together by a covalent bond, and a water molecule is formed
disaccharide
carbohydrate consisting of two monosaccharide molecules joined together
electrolyte
any hydrated cation or anion; can conduct electricity through a solution.
electron
a negatively charged subatomic particle
element
matter that is composed of a single type of atom
endothermic
a synthesis reaction requiring energy
exothermic
a decomposition reaction that releases energy
functional group
an arrangement of atoms common to all members of a class of organic molecules, such as the amine group found in all amino acids.
hydrogen bond
the electrical attraction between a partially charged hydrogen atom and a full or partial negative charge on a different region of the same molecule or another molecule. Hydrogen bonds confer unique properties to water molecules.
hydrophilic
attracted to water.
hydrophobic
insoluble in water
ionic bond
a type of bond formed from the attraction of opposite electrical charges. Electrons are not shared.
lipid
any of a diverse group of organic macromolecules not composed of monomers and insoluble in water.
matter
anything that takes up space and has mass.
metabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions, both anabolic and catabolic, within and organism
molecule
two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond.
monomer
a sub unit of a macromolecule such as a protein
monosaccharides
a monomer of carbohydrate, such as a molecule of glucose(simple sugar).
neutron
an uncharged subatomic particle.
nonpolar covalent bond
type of chemical bond in which there is equal sharing of electrons between atoms with similar electronegativities.
nucleotide
monomer of a nucleic acid.
peptide bond
a covalent bond between amino acids in proteins.
polar covalent bond
type of bond in which there is unequal sharing of electrons between atoms with opposite electrical charges.
polymer
repeating chains of covalently linked monomers found in macromolecules.
products
the atoms, ions, or molecules that remain after a chemical reaction is complete.
protein
a complex macromolecule consisting of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur and important to many cell functions.
proton
a positively charged subatomic particle, which is also the nucleus of a hydrogen atom.
reactants
the atoms, ions or molecules that exist at the beginning of a chemical reaction.
ribonucleic acid (rna)
nucleic acid consisting of nucleotides made up of phosphate, a ribose pentose sugar, in an arrangement of the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil
saturated fat
a triglyceride in which all the terminal carbon atoms are covalently linked to hydrogen atoms (at room temperature solid)
steroids
lipids consisting of four fused carbon rings attached to various side chains and functional groups
unsaturated fat
a triglyceride with at least one double bond between adjacent carbon atoms, and thus at least one carbon atom bound to only a single hydrogen atom.
valence
the combining capacity of an atom
active transport
the movement of a substance against its electrochemical gradient via carrier proteins and requiring cell energy from ATP
amphitrichous
flagella at both poles of the cell
axial filament
in cell morphology, structure composed of rotating endoflagella that allows a spirochete to " corkscrew" through its medium
biofilm
a slimy community of microbes growing on a surface
capsule
glychcalyx composed of repeating units of organic chemicals firmly attached to the cells surface
chemotaxis
cell movement that occurs in response to chemical stimulus
cilia
short, hairlike, rhythmically motile projections of some eukaryotic cells
cytoplasm
general term used to describe the semi liquid, gelatinous material inside of a cell
cytoskeleton
internal network of fibers contributing to the basic shape of eukaryotic and rod shaped prokaryotic cells
cytosol
the liquid portion of the cytoplasm
diffusion
the net movement of a chemical down its concentration gradient
facilitated diffusion
movement of substances across a cell membrane via protein channels
fimbriae
sticky, proteinaceous, extentions of some bacterial cells that function to adhear cells to one another and to environmental surfaces
glycocalyx
sticky external sheath of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
gram negitive cell
generally, a prokaryotic cell having a wall composed of a thin layer of wall materiel , an external membrane, and a paraplasmic space between ; appears pink after the gram staining procedures
gram positive cell
prokaryotic cell having a thick wall ; and bacteria, composed of a thick layer of peptidoglycan containing teichoic acids ; gram positive cells retain the crystal violet dye used in the gram staining procedure, appearing purple
hypertonic
characteristics of a solution having a higher concentration of solutes than another
hypotonic
characteristics of a solution having a lower concentration of solutes than another
inclusions
deposited substances such as a lipid, gas vesicle , or magnetite , stored within the cytosol of a cell
osmosis
the diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane
peptidoglycan
large, interconnected polysaccaride composed of chains of two alternating sugars and cross bridges of amino acids. main component of bacterial cell walls
peritrichous
terms used to describe a cell having flagella covering the cells surface
phospholipid bilayer
two layered structure of a cell's membrane
phototaxis
cell movement that occurs in response to light stimulus
pili
short, hairlike protein structures on the surface of some bacteria, Appendages that allow bacteria to attach to each other and to transfer DNA
ribosomes
nonmembranous organelle found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that is composed of protein and ribosomal rna and functions to make polypeptides
slime layer
loose, water-soluble glycocalyx
centroles
nonmembranous organelles in animal cells which appear to function in the formation of flagella and cilia and in cell division
chloroplast
light-harvesting organelle found in photosynthetic eukaryotes
chromatin
threadlike mass of dna and associated histone protein that become visible during mitosis as chromosomes
indocytosis
active transport process, used by some eukaryotic cells, in which the pseudopodia surround a substance and move it into the cell
indoplasmic reticulum
netlike arrangement of hollow tubuals continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope and function as a transport
endosymbiosis
A hypothesis that proposes that mitochondrion and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that began living with larger cells
exocytosis
active transport process, used by some eukaryotic cells, in which vesicles fuse with the cytoplasmic membrane and export their substances from the cell
golgi body
in eukaryotic cells, a series of flattened, hollow sacks surrounded by phospholipid bilayers in functioning to package large molecules for export in secretory vesicles
lysosomes
vesicle in animal cells that contain digestive enzymes
mitochondria
spherical to elongated structures found in most eukaryotic cells that produce most of the atp in the cell
nuclear envelope
double membrane composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding a cells nucleus
nuclear pores
space in the nuclear envelope that function to control the transport of substances through it
nucleus
spherical to ovoid membranous organelle containing a eukaryotic cell's primary genetic meterial
organelle
cellular structure that acts as a tiny organ to carry out one or more cell functions
peroxisomes
vessicle found in all eukaryotic cells that degrades poisonous metabolic waste
phagocytosis
type of endocytosis in which solids are moved into the cell
pinocytosis
type of endocytosis in which liquids are moved into the cell
pseudopodia
movable extensions of the cytoplasm and membrane of some eukaryotic cells
rough er
type of endoplasmic reticulum that has ribosome adhering to its outer surface; these produce proteins for transport throughout the cell
secretory vesicles
in eukaryotic cells, vesicles containing secretions packaged by the golgi body that fuse to the cytoplasmic membrane and then release their contents outside the cell via exocytosis
smooth er
type of endoplasmic reticulum that lacks ribosomes and plays a role in lipid synthesis and transport
compound microscope
microscope using a series of lenses for magnification
confocal microscope
type of light microscope that uses ultraviolet lasers to illuminate florescent chemicals in a single plane of the specimen
contrast
the difference in visual intensity between two objects, or between an object and its background
electron microscope
A microscope that focuses an electron beam through a specimen, resulting in resolving power a thousandfold greater than that of a light microscope. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) is used to study the internal structure of thin sections of cells. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to study the fine details of cell surfaces.
florescent microscope
type of light microscope that uses an ultraviolet light source to fluoresce objects
magnification
the apparent increase in size of an object viewed via microscopy
micrograph
a photograph of a microscopic image
numerical aperture
measure of the ability of a lense to gather light
phase microscope
type of microscope used to examine living microorganisms or fragile specimen
resolution
the ability to distinguish between objects that are close together
scanning em
type of electron microscope that uses magnetic fields within a vacuum tub to scan a beam of electrons across a specimens metal-coated surface
simple microscope
microscope containing a single magnifying lens
staining
coloring microscopy specimens with stains called dyes
total magnification
a multiple of the magnification achieved by the objective and ocular lenses of a compound microscope
transmission em
type of electron microscope which generates a beam of electrons that passes through the specimen and produces an image on a fluorescent screen
wavelength
the distance between two corresponding points of a wave
chemical fixation
in microscopy , a technique that uses methyl alcolol or formalin to attach a smear to a slide
differential stain
in microscopy, a stain using more than one dye so that different structures can be distinguished. the gram stain is the most commonly used
heat fixation
in microscopy , a technique that uses the heat from a flame to attach a smear to a slide
simple stain
in microscopy, a stain composed of a single dye such as crystal violet
smear
in microscopy, the thin film of organisms on the slide
bacteriophage
virus that infects and usually destroys bacterial cell s
binomial nomenclature
the classification method used in the Linnaean system of taxonomy, which assigns each species both a genus name and a specific epithet
dichotomous key
method of identifying organisms in which information is arranged in paired statements, only one of which applies to any particular organism
domain
any of the three basic types of cell groupings distinguished by carol wosese , containing the linnaean taxon of kingdoms
phage typing
method of classifying microorganisms in which unknown bacteria are identified by observing plaques
plaques
in phage typing, the clear region within the bacterial lawn where growth is inhibited by bacteriophages
serology
the study and use of immunological test to diagnose and treat disease or identify antibody or antigens
specific epithet
in taxonomy, latter portion of the descriptive name of a species
taxa
nonoverlapping groups of organisms sorted on the basis of mutual similarities
taxonomy
the science of classifying and naming organisms
deci(d)
1/10
centi (c)
1/100
milli- (m)
1/1000
micro (u)
1/1,000,000
nano (n)
1,000,000,000
1 oz is equil to
28 grams
1 in is equil to
2.5 cm
1.06 qts is equil to
1 ltr
1 teaspoon is equil to
5 mililiters
basic standard units length
meters (m)
basic standard units weight
grams (g)
basic standard units volume
liters (l)