5.4 Cladistics

Essential vocabulary for the IBO DP Biology course
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Terms in this set (...)

Analogous Trait
trait structures which are similar because of convergent evolution.
Clade
a group comprised of an ancestral species plus all of the species that have evolved from the organism.
Cladistics
constructing a phylogenetic tree based on primitive and shared derived characteristics.
Cladograms
a diagram which shows groupings based on primitive and shared derived characteristics.
Convergent evolution
where species from different lineages show similar characteristics because they are subject to similar selection pressures.
Divergent evolution
a pattern of evolution where an ancestral species evolves into a number of distinct species due to exposure of different populations to different selection pressures.
Figwort
a family of angiosperms.
Homologous trait
structures which are similar because of convergent evolution.
Molecular clock
using the number of differences in DNA or amino acid sequences to deduce how long ago species split.
mitochondrial DNA
A small amount of DNA that is located in the mitochondria of cells. It is circular and does not have repair mechanisms, it mutates at a regular rate.