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116 terms

MT-100 - AP1 FINAL REVIEW

Study for final exam
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Compounds are made up of:
two or more different types of atoms.
Atoms are pure substances made up of:
only one type of atom.
Physiology is defined as:
the study of the function of a living organism and its parts.
Ionic bonds are formed by:
atoms of opposite charge.
A neuron with a resting potential has a __________ charge.
positive
What happens when a neuron reaches its threshold?
It transmits an impulse.
When a muscle fiber contracts, it contracts at its full capacity. This is called:
the all-or-none response.
Sebum is:
the secretion from the hair follicles that helps lubricate the hair and skin.
Where are papillae found?
on the tongue.
Villus are found in:
the intestinal tract.
Astrocytes are neuroglia that are important for:
the formation of the blood brain barrier.
Schwann cells form the myelin sheaths in the:
PNS.
Oligodendrocytes are:
cells that produce myelin for neurons in the central nervous system.
Microglia are neuroglia that:
help protect the CNS from microbes.
Anatomy is the:
study of the parts of an organism and how they relate to each other.
Ionic bonds usually dissolve easily in:
water.
Molecules with ionic bonds produce:
ions when dissolved in water and form an electrolyte.
When a section of the neuron is stimulated by an action potential:
the exterior of the cell becomes negative.
The exterior of a neuron with resting potential:
has a slightly positive charge.
The epiphyses are:
the broader ends of long bones containing red marrow.
Water is the most abundant:
compound in the body.
Water is found both in:
and around the cells of the body.
Water is the solvent in which:
most other compounds are dissolved.
The human body is what percentage water
60%-70%
Freely movable joints are also called:
diarthrotic (SAD) or synovial.
A slightly movable joint is also called:
amphiarthotic. (SAD)
What is the primary characteristic of synarthrotic joints?
The are immovable. (SAD)
The minimum number of neurons for a reflex arc is:
two neurons.
A three neuron reflex arc has one sensory neuron, one motor neuron, and one:
interneuron.
The shoulder joint (glenohumeral) is an example of what kind of joint?
Ball-and-socket
Elbow joint (humeroulnar) is which type of joint?
Hinge
The C1 &C2 (atlantoaxial) joint is of which type?
Pivot
The radius and ulna form which type of joint?
Pivot
Circumduction:
An action of an appendage that makes a cone-shaped movement and draws a circle at the distal end.
Carpals and tarsals are gliding joints that:
move slightly in all three axes of movement.
The knee joint permits which types of functional movements?
Flexion and extension.
An acid: has a pH:
of less than 7.
A base has a pH:
greater than 7.
Water has a pH of
7
Midsagittal plane
The plane that divides the body into left and right halves?
Sagittal plane
The plane that left and right halves?
Frontal (coronal) plane divides the body into
anterior/front, or posterior/back.
Transverse plane or horizontal plane divides the body:
into superior and inferior portions.
What are the functions of bone?
Support, protection, mineral storage, and blood formation (hematopoiesis)
Periosteum
A strong fibrous membrane covering a long bone, all except the joint surfaces.
Endosteum
The membrane inside the medullary cavity of lone bones
Spongy bone is characterized by:
open spaces partially filled by an assemblage of needle-like structures (trabeculae)
gastrointestinal tract.
The tube that forms the primary organs of the digestive system
alveoli are found in the: (system)
respiratory system.
Lymph nodes are found in the (system):
lymphatic system.
Glucose
a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that comes from carbohydrates. (the body's preferred energy source).
One of the methods of determining the extent (surface area effected) of a burn injury is:
the "rule of nines."
One of the methods of determining the degree (depth) of a burn injury is:
first degree, second degree, and third degree.
The two major body cavities are called the:
ventral and dorsal cavities.
Abdominal and pelvic cavities are sometimes referred to as:
abdominopelvic cavity.
The thoracic cavity is part of the:
ventral cavity.
The Golgi tendon receptors are classified as:
proprioceptors.
Peritonitis is:
inflammation of the serous membrane in the abdominal cavity.
The serous membranes in the thoracic cavity are called:
pleurae (visceral pleura and parietal pleura).
The medulla oblongata contains the "vital centers" for:
the cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor functions.
The hip joint (iliofemoral) is which type of joint?
Ball-and-socket
The elbow, knee, and ankle are examples which type of joint?
Hinge
The radius and ulna produce which actions?
Supination and pronation
A base has a pH:
greater than 7.
Water has a pH:
of 7.
Skin is composed of which layers of tissues?
epidermis and dermis. (hypodermis is technically not part of the skin)
Subcutaneous is also called:
hypodermis.
epidermis,
contains a top layer called corneum that sheds constantly
The free nerve endings in the skin respond to:
. pain
Pacianian
vibration.
The main shaft-like portion of a long bone is called what?
Diaphysis
Epiphysis
wider ends of bones that have the growth plate and soft spongy bone
Articular cartilage
covers the ends of articulate bones
A synapse is:.
a gap between neurons.
Axon the conducting portion of a neuron carries
Away from cell body
Dendrite brings a stimulus
into the cell body
What are the two divisions of the human skeleton?
Axial and appendicular
Two main types of bone
Compact and spongy bone
The point of contact between the nerve and the muscle fibers it stimulates is
called: neuromuscular junction.
motor unit. A single motor neuron with all
the muscle cells it innervates is called:
motor neuron.
one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers it inervates
neurotransmitter.
Chemical messenger that jumps a synaptic gap
The minimal level of stimulation required to cause a fiber to contract is called:
a threshold stimulus.
When a muscle fiber is stimulated it contracts completely. This is called:
the all-or-none law.
Twitch reaction
Is a single event spasm of a muscle
Tonic contracture:
is sustained partial contraction of a muscle
What are the three types of muscle fibers?
Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
The muscle attachment to the more stationary bone is called
the: origin.
The muscle that produces the desired action is
prime mover.
The sense of taste is classified as
a: chemoreceptor.
The body's sense of position and movement is reported by
stimulation of proprioceptors.
The thin myofilaments inside the sarcomeres of skeletal muscle cells are called:
actin
The thick myofilaments inside the sarcomeres of skeletal muscle cells are called:
myosin.
Sarcomere is the
basic contractile unit of skeletal muscles called?
The sympathetic nervous system is:
called the thoracolumbar system. known as the "fight or flight" system.
The parasympathetic nervous system is called:
cranuiosacral outlflow system. known as the "rest and digest" system.
dendrite.
The part of the neuron that carries impulses to the neuron cell body is the:
neurolemma.
= cell membrane of nerve fiber
nodes of Ranvier
= gaps in myelin that allows "spark" of action portential (impulse) to jump. Making it faster
afferent (sensory) neurons.
The types of neurons that carry impulses to the brain and spinal cord are called:
efferent (motor) neurons.
The types of neurons that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord are called:
myelinated neurons. = fast
unmyelinated neurons
. = slow
What are the three parts of the brain stem:
midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
The type of neurons that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord
are called: efferent neurons.
The type of neurons that carry impulses towards
the brain and spinal cord
are called: afferent neurons.
axon.
The part of the neuron that carries impulses away from the soma is the:
dendrite.
The part of the neuron that carries impulses towards the soma is the:
Osteocytes are
mature bone cells
Osteoclasts are
cells that break down bone
Osteons
- the smallest structural and functional unit of bone
Osteoblasts
What are bone-forming cells are called?
Three bones of the middle ear
malleus, stapes, incus.
Receptors sensitive to light
photoreceptors.
neurotransmitter.
chemical messenger that jumps the synaptic cleft
motor neuron.
efferent
sensory neuron
afferent