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CLD - Exam 1 Study aid - part 1

Hallidays 7 functions/intentions of language: 9 to16 or 18 months age

1) Instrumental
2) Regulatory
3) Interactional
4) Personal
5) Heuristic
6) Imaginative
7) Informative

1) Instrumental

To RECEIVE material needs, desired objects or instruments from others

2) Regulatory

To CONTROL the behavior of others

3) Interactional

To make INTERPERSONAL CONTACT with others in the environment by initiating or sustaining contact with other people

4) Personal

To demonstrate AWARENESS of SELF and express one's own FEELINGS and INDIVIDUALITY

5) Heuristic

To attempt to have environments or events in the environments EXPLAINED

6) Imaginative

To PRETEND or playact

7) Informative

to COMMUNICATE EXPERIENCES or tell someone something


-Sending & receiving of messages, information, ideas and feelings
-Includes verbal & nonverbal actions
-Any behavior that conveys a message
-Not limited to humans


Symbol based code: symbol stands for something else
--"Code whereby ideas about the world are represented through a conventional system of arbitrary symbols of communication" (Bloom)
-Symbols are mutually agreed upon

language continued

-RULES guide how to combine symbols
-rules are predictable
-There is a CREATIVE nature to language
-Language is an ACQUIRED or LEARNED behavior!!
-We are BORN w/ the CAPACITY to learn language


-verbal production of language
-articulation of the phonemes (sounds) of language
-sounds produced from respiration, phonation, resonance, articulation

-Consonants = constriction of airstream; Vowels = without significant constriction

extralinguistic aspects of communication

Para-linguistics (melodic components: S, I, P)
Non-linguistics (non-verbal communication)
Meta-linguistics (thinking about language)

Components of Language (5)

1) Phonology
2) Semantics
3) Syntax
4) Morphology
5) Pragmatics


Speech sounds (phonemes)
Phoneme = sound whose function is to distinguish one word from another
40 - 46 phonemes
Reading impact: c/k/ck

Semantics: definition & main type of meaning

Vocabulary of a language - the lexicon
**Referential meanings - the dictionary
Levels of categorization = increased understanding of word (friend is an abstract concept)

Semantics con'd: 4 other types of meanings

1) Relational meaning-based on relationship b/t words
2) Figurative meaning-beyond literal meaning
3) Inferential meaning-understand what is not stated explicitly
4) words with multiple meanings


Rules for combining words & ordering words in sentences (subject + verb + object)
-Syntax + morphology = grammar

Syntax: transformational grammar (Chomsky)

-Set of rules that allow us to "transform" sentences and alter the meaning


Rules to derive word forms and for grammatical inflections (drive, drives, driven, drove, driving)
-Morpheme = smallest unit of language that conveys meaning
Roots (Free) or Affixes (Bound)


Rules for using language in social context

-Convo turn taking; discourse (connective flow of lang)
-Rule governed, content specific
-Functions of language; cohesion of statements;
-Comm repair (signal); fluency; perspective taking


Decoding: comprehension, Reception, Interpretation

--Typically better than expression, but not always (ex: ASD children)


Encoding: expression & production

Modes of Communication

1) Auditory-oral (listen/talk-develops first)
2) Visual-graphic (read/write-formal instruction)
3) Visual-gesture (ASL)

Biological base for speech production

-Infant vocal tracts become adult-like in 1st 3 yrs
-ORAL SPACE of newborn is SMALL
-SUCKING PADS in cheeks
-TONGUE takes up MORE SPACE in newborn
-RESTRICTIONS in MOVEMENT due to small cavity
-can BREATHE & SWALLOW at same time
-LARYNX is HIGHER in neck; thus don't need laryngeal closure to protect airway
-eustacian tube, ET is HORIZONTAL

Cranial Nerves of Speech/Language:

V: Trigeminal
VII: Facial
VIII: Vestibulocochlear (Auditory) -- sensory only
IX: Glossopharygeal
X: Vagus
XI: Accessory -- motor only
XII: Hypoglossal


Getting to know the environment; being an active learner (Piaget)
-How to process & make sense of incoming stimuli

Strong Cognition hypothesis - Piaget (opposite of weak cognition hypothesis)

-Cognitive precursors to language development: language is a reflection of underlying cognitive skill
-Thought precedes language: each stage is a foundation for next

Piaget's stages of cognition

1) Sensorimotor stage: Birth - 2 years
2) Pre-operational thought: 2 -7 years
3) Concrete operational: 7 -11 years
4) Formal operations: 11/2 - adult

1) Sensorimotor stage (Birth - 2 years)

-Learn to generalize activities to a wide range of situations & coordinate them into increasingly lengthy chains of behavior

2) Pre-operational thought (2 - 7 years)

a) pre-conceptional thinking (2-4 yrs)
b) intuitive thinking (4 - yrs)

-Acquire representational skills in area of language and imagery
-Self oriented, egocentric view; view world from own perspective

a) over & under-extends meanings
b) concreteness of thought; lacks conservation & reversibility (deals with one variable at a time)

3) Concrete operational (7 -11 yrs)

-Less egocentric; able to take another point of view
-Understand concrete but not abstract problems
-Acquire conservation & seriation, as well as higher classification skills

4) Formal operations (11/12 - adult)

-Can think logically & abstractly (for 1st time)
-Uses hypothetical & propositional thinking
-Verbal reasoning; logic (if..then statements)
-Lack of egocentricity

Language & Cognition?

-No exact agreement on nature of early relationship

-Vygotsky & Luria: language mediates thought (cognitive activity); mastered speech becomes structure for thinking

WE KNOW THAT: cognition precedes language in early stages; but once acquired, language promotes the acquisition of conceptual thinking & abstract thought

Egocentricity: Piaget vs. Vygotsky

Piaget: ecocentric speech develops first w/o concern for others; is precursor to socialized speech & will disappear as child develops socialized language

Vygotsky: egocentric speech is forerunner to inner speech;helps child to regulate behavior


Ability to stand back from what we know & consciously analyze, control, plan & organize our thinking
-Key for academic success; develops age 7 (when children enter Piaget's concrete operational stage)
-children w/ LDs evidence problems w/ metacognition


-Short utterances
-parents correct context (semantics) rather than morphosyntactic or phonological errors
-proper nouns replace pronouns
-duration of spoken words longer
-slower rate of speech; words stressed; higher pitch

Auditory processing

-Deals with how individuals process incoming stimuli
-Chomsky: language acquisition device

Auditory: sensitivity; attention; rate; discrimination; sequencing; memory;
--Most important: rate, discrimination, sequencing.

Prelinguistic period (Birth - 12 mo)

-Vocalizing, babbling, laughing, eye contact, turn-taking, responding & interacting w/ caregivers, pointing, child w/ intention to communicate (8 mo); early pragmatic behaviors

BROWN's stages

-5 stages of learning based on MLU --felt that was a good measure of child's overall language development

BROWN Stage 1:
First words, 12 - 28 mo, MLU 1.0 -2.0

1-2 word utterances
-Labeling, then action words, then social words
-extensive use of "free" morphemes
-uses comments, greetings, protests
-child can point to named objects; understands about 50 words, responds to y/n questions
-verbal turn-taking

BROWN Stage 2:
27 - 30 mo, MLU 2.0 - 2.5

1 word phrases: Agent action (Ted read); Action object (Push truck); Attention (See ball); Possessive (Ted truck); Denial (No eat)
-Q formation with intonation
-"my, mine"; refer to self by name
-comprehend prepositions: in, on, under
-understand simple directions & questions
-develop semantic relations

BROWN Stage 3:
Two words +, 31 - 34 mo, MLU 2.5 - 3.0

3 -4 word utterances
-morphological endings -ing, s, 's appear
-past tense irregular used with overgeneralization of grammatical rules;
-present progressive used w/o "is": Mommy pushing truck.
-large increase in vocabulary; understands negation

BROWN Stage 4:
35 - 50 mo, MLU 3 - 3.75

3 - 5 word sentences
child embeds one sentence into another, which increases MLU
-Can sustain topic of interest; word pairs
-speech is easier to understand
-can sing song, repeat nursery rhyme
-learning about cause & effect: if/then, why/because
-able to pretend: develop metalinguistic skills

BROWN Stage 5:
Communicative Competence: MLU 3.75 - 4.5

-Knowledge of rules of grammar are developing
-May still see errors on irregular forms
-Child knows who can say what to whom and when h/she can say it

BROWN beyond stage 5:
MLU 4.5 +

-47 mo (4 years old) and beyond
-Child able to converse about a variety of topics both in the "here/now" and "here/then"


Language description by:

1) FORM ( (Syntax, Phonology, Morphology)
2) CONTENT (Semantics)
3) USE (Pragmatics)

8 key Language Phases (Bloom)

Phases 1 -3: 12 - 24 mo
--Single words to simple sentences

Phases 4 -5: 24 - 36 mo
--Simple sentences to more complex sentences

Phases 6-8: 24 - 48 mo
--Sentences with increased complexity

Phase 1 (12-24 mo)

FORM: single word utterances
CONTENT: existence (there); nonexistence (no); recurrence (more), rejection (no), denial (no), action (open); locative action (up) possession, attribution (hot)
-relational words, object names
USE: what is ongoing & present; what child is doing
-not often related to previous utterance
-serves a range of functions (comment, get attention, protest, obtain objects, get someone to respond, play with sounds, greet, etc)

Phase 2 (12-24 mo)

FORM: Two word utterances
-order of words expresses relationship b/t words
-word order emerges; increase in number of different words to express same relationship
-agent-action/object; action-object
CONTENT: same as phase 1
USE: same as phase 1

Phase 2 examples:

This ball (existence); No cookie (non-existence); More cookie (recurrence); Mommy hat (possession); Eat cookie (action); Up baby (locative action)

Phase 3 (by 24 mo)

FORM: Three word utterances
-order: subject-verb-compliment expresses agent-action-object relationship
-plural s emerges to code quantity
CONTENT: Locative state; State; Quantity; Coordination of Categories (existence + attribution)
USE: same as phase 1

Phase 3 examples:

That red one (existence + attribution); Mommy open that action); Mommy go car (locative action); I want cookie (state); Eat cookies (action + quantity); Two ball (quantity)

Phase 4: (24 - 36 mo)

See PP 1
FORM: Qs: What, Where?
-Modal words: Wanna, Gonna- express wish, intention
-"a" appears in existence utterances
-emergence of verb inflections: -ing, 3rd person...
CONTENT: Notice; Epistemic; Temporal; State; Coordination of Categories
USE: increase talk about objects & events not present
-begin talking about action of others; contingency increases in form of repeating, adding

Phase 4 examples:

What's this? What is it? (existence); This another cookie (existence + recurrence); No want that (rejection + state); Want eat my cookie (volition-intention + action);
This one goes in here (locative action + temporal); I eating cookie (temporal); I hear Mommy, Look at that (notice-reception); Where is it? (locative state)

Phase 5 (24 - 36 mo)

FORM: Who?
-Verb inflections increase; emergence of "ed" ending; 's emergence to mark plurality
-greater variety of action verbs
-Pronoun/Noun preferences begin to disappear
-"and"; "this" "that" (demonst. pronouns) sometimes used
-Modal verbs "can't", didn't, don't emerge
CONTENT: Same as phase 4
USE: -Begin to talk about 2 events or states related by time or space, or causally related
-More questions, esp about location, identity

Phase 5 examples

Who that? That's a cookie. I can't reach. It's not in there. Don't touch my ball. I not tired. I broke a block. I going wash my hands (volition-intention + action.

That's mommy's purse. Put this on the table (locative action). I want some more cookie. Going to see elephant and tiger. I have some water. Open door Mommy. I want that cup (state + specification) Dolly broke it (causal)

Phase 6 (24 - 48 mo) examples

FORM: "and", "so", "because", "the", "to"
USE: increasingly serve social functions; use depending on perspective (I/you; this/that; here/there; a/the)

Here goes a green wheel. I get more lamb in the train. Now my turn. (temporal + possession).
And they gonna have some cereal. I'm gonna step in puddle and get all wet. Will you cut this for me?

Phase 7 (24 - 48 mo) examples

FORM/CONTENT: new ideas emerge:
1) Epistemic - used to code a mental state of affair about the state or event described ("know what", "know where" "think")
2) Adversative - used to code the relationship between two events and/or states that are in contrast to one another ("and", "but")

Phase 7 examples

What you doing? I can only have the nightie when I go to sleep (temporal).
--You go there cause I have to go potty (causal). Let's take the cookies out so we can eat them (causal).
-- I think I broke the train (epistemic). I don't know where it is (epistemic).
-I want mommy get it. I can do it. Look I jump (notice-perception). That's where the cup goes (specification)
-The butterflies saw the bumblebees here but they are not coming out (adversative)

Phase 8 (24 - 48 mo) examples

FORM: "why", "show", "watch", "should"
CONTENT: new ideas emerge:
1) Communication: words are used that talk about "talking" (tell, say)

-Watch what I'm doing. When will you go home? Why are you putting that right there? Maybe the mommy will wash the boy and girl. It's just something that I hold (specification). I want this doll to stay here (state).
-Mommy said I can have more (communication)
-They should sit down in a chair (state-obligatory)

Early word acquisition

Expressive vocabulary:

-1st words at 12 mo
-50 words at 18 mo
-120-300 words at 24 mo

Word acquisition

-Children learn words they hear more often; think about words that are meaningful to the child
-Phonology: easier to learn words with sounds they can produce already
-Object labels learned b/f actions -- then attribute --then spatial --then temporal

Word acquisition

-Concrete acquired first
-Next, classify by size, color, shape, function
-Abstract categories learned later

Word acquisition: pg. 50

"playED" develops slightly b/f "jumpED" b/f "paintED"
-We're big; she's running: last to be developed
-"pigs" slightly b/f "boats"; irregular noun plurals (child - children) lag behind considerably

-"bugs" then "ducks" then "horses"

-temporal-spatial features; inanimate-animate characteristics

Acquisition of Questions

-Lags behind development of negatives
-Y/N questions; then "wh" questions
-Early stages = rising inflections
-Question mountain (Hanen)

Early pragmatics: functions of language (Halliday)

1) Instrumental
2) (Regulatory)
3) Interactional
4) Personal
5) Heuristic
6) Imaginative
7) Informative

Pragmatic Language Development

-Turn Taking: 9 mo
-Topic Maintenance: 2 yrs = 40%; 3 yrs = 50%; 4 yrs = maintain topic across turns
-Revisions (normal dysfluencies)

Language, Literacy & Education

-Language & language related skills form majority of curricula in early grades
-Kindergarten children understand b/t 20, 000 - 24, 000 words
-Stronger language skills result in stronger reading/writing skills

MLU analysis:

MLU = total number of morphemes divided by total number of utterances

Type/Token Ratio

-Purpose is to look at the # and type the words the child is using
-Calculate total number of different words (types) and divide by total number of words (tokens)

Types / tokens = TTR

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